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f. C. HAD DON 

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A. C. H ADDON , Sc.D., F. R.S. 

University Reader in Ethnology 

With Five Maps 

Cambridge : 
at the University Press 

101 2 

First Edition^ 1911 
Second Edition, 1912 

With the exception of the coat of arms at 
the foot, the design on the title page is a 
reproduction of one used by the earliest known 
Cambridge printer, John Siberch, 1521 


MY object in writing this little book is to give a 
brief survey of the trend of human migrations so 
far as our imperfect knowledge permits, and I have 
endeavoured to do this for various periods of human 
history, even going as far back as the earliest dif- 
fusions that can be predicated. It has not been 
easy to compress into so small a space the account 
of the various migrations, indeed little more could 
be done than merely indicate without describing the 
movements, their causes and effects. Much in- 
teresting information has thus had to be whittled 
down to a bare statement. I have introduced dates 
when possible, but in many cases these are only 
approximate, and it sometimes happens, as in 
Egyptian chronology, that the system of dating of 
one authority differs widely from that of another. 
This is the first time, I believe, that this task has been 
attempted, and consequently many errors may 
have crept in. The study of human migrations 
emphasises the fact that ethnology and history can 
be satisfactorily elucidated only from the geo- 
graphical standpoint. 


The bibliographies do not profess to be exhaustive, 
but a sufficient number of references have been given 
to enable the reader to check most of the statements 
made. The numbers in thick type refer to authors 
mentioned at the end of each section, those of the 
pages being printed in light type. 

It has been thought desirable to provide the 
reader with maps showing the more important 
migrations. Owing to the small size of the page 
these movements could be only approximately re- 
presented as regards direction, and chronology has 
had to be entirely left out of account, except in 
so far as prehistoric migrations in some instances 
have been indicated by dotted lines. A number 
of historic movements, particularly in the case 
of Folk-wanderings of central Europe, have had 
to be omitted for the sake of clearness. 

In conclusion, my thanks are due to Mr E. C. 
Quiggin, and especially to Mr H. M. Chadwick, for 
their advice in respect to the section on Europe, and 
I must also acknowledge the great assistance which 
I have received from Miss Lilian Whitehouse in the 
compilation of this book, and in the construction 
of the maps. 


May 1911. 



I. INTRODUCTION . . . . 1 


III. EUROPE ...... 38 

IV. AFRICA ...... 61 

V. AMERICA ...... 73 




INDEX ....... 116 

TIONS . . . . . at end of volume 




THE movements of peoples are determined by two 
main factors, which may be briefly described as the 
driving force and the control ; or, in other words, the 
cause of a migration is due to one set of circum- 
stances and its direction to another. 

When reduced to its simplest terms a migration 
is caused by an expulsion and an attraction, the 
former nearly always resulting from dearth of food 
or from over-population, which practically comes to 
the same thing. Sooner or later, a time comes 
when the increase of the population of a country 
exceeds its normal food-supply. Among hunting 
communities the game may be so reduced by over- 
hunting or by disease that it cannot support even 
a stationary or decreasing population. The chief 
danger to be feared by pastoral peoples is lack 
of water ; a succession of small droughts can 
make pasturing unprofitable, but when a whole 
A l 


country definitely becomes more arid, migrations 
on a large scale are inevitable. Evidence has now 
accumulated which proves that various regions of 
the earth have undergone slow climatic changes, and 
that a given area at one period of time may be more 
or less wooded, while at another, owing to a drier 
climate, steppes arise, or even desert conditions may 
supervene. Changes of this nature occurred in parts 
of Europe during the ages when Palaeolithic men 
hunted reindeer and chased bison and wild horses ; 
and the desiccation of central Asia has had a profound 
effect upon human history in Europe as well as 
in Asia. Agriculturists are affected in the same 
way ; but to a certain extent, by means of irrigation 
in some cases, and by more intensive cultivation in 
others, the soil may be made to support an in- 
creased population ; nevertheless, a limit is soon 
reached, unless the resources are supplemented by 

It is probable that a migration induced by an 
attraction is rare as compared with that produced 
by an expulsion, for as a rule people are loth to leave 
their fatherland, and it usually requires the double 
set of circumstances to uproot them. 

The simplest cases of migration by attraction 
are those of a people living on poor steppes or 
plateaus adjoining cultivated land or rich valleys. 
Agricultural peoples are, as a rule, averse to and ill- 


prepared for war, and the more prosperous their cir- 
cumstances, the more they are likely to be enervated 
by their very civilisation. They are thus liable at 
all times to be attacked by neighbouring brigands, 
who in some cases retire to their barren homes with 
their booty, but in others remain among the con- 
quered people, and, assimilating with them, in due 
course become more civilised, and in their turn are 
subject to invasions from their barbarian kinsmen of 
the borders. Thus is set up an automatic social 
mechanism which at the same time civilises the 
barbarians and energises those who have become 
softened by easy circumstances. To take but two 
examples : the walled towns of Ancient Greece in 
the centre of valleys opening out to the sea point 
to a danger from the brigands of the mountains, 
and possibly also from pirates from the sea ; and 
the inhabitants of the rich plains of Assam from 
time immemorial have been subject to raids and 
settlements by the hill tribes. When people become 
agglomerated in towns, especially where they have 
gained notoriety for their riches, the temptation for 
looting becomes very strong, but as a rule such 
enterprises do not lead to a* permanent migration. 

Hunger and loot are not the only impulses towards 
migration. The restless disposition of the " winners 
of the west " of North America was not due to an 
inability to maintain an existence in the Eastern 


States, nor to an expectation of speedy riches. A 
craving for land for more and more land is only 
a partial explanation ; sentiment, and a reaction 
against even the slightest of social restraints, had a 
great deal to do with it. Gold rushes are different, 
as wealth may thus be speedily gained by rapid 

Freedom from social, political or religious bondage 
has resulted in migrations of various kinds, like the 
exodus of the Hebrew bondmen from Egypt, the 
voyage of the Mayflower, or the trekking of the Boers. 
Religious enthusiasm may stimulate race expansion 
and lead to shiftings of population, as is seen in the 
histories of Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. The 
partnerships of the crescent and the sword, of the 
cross and the gold of El Dorado, have been based 
upon a double enthusiasm. 

The movements of peoples which are sufficiently 
dramatic for the ordinary historian to record, are 
often of less importance than the quiet, steady drift 
of a population from one area into another, as, for 
example, in the emigration from Europe to America 
in modern times. Movements of this kind may 
result in a noticeable or even a fatal depletion of a 
country, and the parent country may long remain 
desolate, or may be filled up in course of time by an 
alien people, as in the case of eastern Germany and 
the Slavs (p. 47). Although immigrant peoples may 


bring a culture and language permanently affecting 
the conquered peoples, yet the aboriginal popula- 
tion, if allowed to survive in sufficient numbers, 
will eventually impair the racial purity of the new 
comers, and there is a tendency for the indigenous 
racial type to reassert itself and become predominant 
once more. 

The control of a migration is due mainly to geo- 
graphical conditions. Movements of men, like those 
of fluids, take the line of least resistance, flowing, as 
it were, in channels or open areas bounded by barriers. 
The latter are of variable resistance ; thus, if an open 
area or a valley is densely populated it may offer a 
greater resistance than a geographical barrier, and 
the tide of migration would then flow over or along 
the barrier. Barriers are thus relative, and only in 
rare cases are they insurmountable. 

An open country is most liable to early occupation, 
as the labour of felling trees with stone implements 
is very great ; even with iron axes there is con- 
siderable difficulty in clearing a forest, a difficulty 
which becomes enormously increased in tropical 
jungles. For the same reason an open country is 
subject to frequent invasions. River valleys, for 
various reasons, early supported relatively large 
populations, but the rivers themselves, as a rule, 
afforded an easy means for ingress to seafaring 
invaders. Steppes present great difficulties to 


agriculturists, unless they are supplied with 
mechanical means for breaking up the soil and reap- 
ing the harvest ; on the other hand, steppes form the 
natural home for pastoral peoples, who by their 
mobility are usually able to keep off intruders. When 
a hunting population occupies an open country or 
a steppe, it is ultimately replaced by a pastoral 
people, especially if the invaders be also tillers of 
the soil, for the more they are prone to agriculture 
the more complete is their usurpation of the land. 
A pastoral or semi-pastoral people, however, can 
only migrate along a country which affords sufficient 
pasturage and watering for their flocks ; mountains, 
forests, deserts, swamps, and the sea form obstacles 
which are practically insuperable for such peoples. 
In Africa, at all events, a further barrier towards 
migration may be found in the tsetse fly, ticks, and 
other insect pests, which afford intermediate hosts 
for the parasites of various kinds of cattle diseases. 
Mountain chains are obvious barriers which de- 
flect all movements on a large scale, but usually 
they can be pierced across the passes by the strenuous 
efforts of armed bands. Even the Romans did not 
attack the Germans till they had secured their 
position in Gaul and could find an easy entrance into 
central Europe. On the other hand the slopes or 
plateaus of a mountain chain may serve as a bridge 
when the surrounding country is difficult to traverse. 


The movements of peoples may not result entirely 
from causes which appear to be immediate, but are 
traceable in some instances to a remote event having 
at first sight no connection with them. Even an 
artificial barrier, as Ujfalvy suggests, may have far- 
reaching effects : " The building of the great wall of 
China was an event fraught with the greatest conse- 
quences, and one may say without exaggeration, that 
it contributed powerfully to the premature downfall 
of the Roman Empire " (1, 24). 

Another type of artificial barrier is produced by 
the dominance of neighbouring countries by a power- 
ful empire, which prevents the encroachment of 
barbarian peoples into countries thus protected. 
Examples of this are seen in the great empires of 
the East, the Egyptian dominance of Syria, and the 
Roman Empire. When the central government 
became weak, the way was again open for invasion. 

The possession of more deadly weapons, improved 
implements for daily needs, or better means of trans- 
port, such as horses or camels, vehicles, or seaworthy 
vessels, has given their owners a decisive superiority 
on coming in contact with worse equipped peoples. 
These advantages have been potent factors in pro- 
ducing changes of population. 

Not only is it necessary fully to comprehend 
existing climatic conditions and geographical 
features in order to understand human migrations, 


but it is equally necessary to reconstruct the con- 
ditions of different periods since the appearance 
of man. This is essentially the work of geologists, 
geographers, and meteorologists. The data are very 
scanty, and until more have been accumulated and 
the conditions reconstructed, ethnologists will be 
unable to elucidate the early history of man. 

Our knowledge of the movements of peoples in 
various parts of the world during the historic period, 
that is, since the time when man learnt to write 
his records, is meagre, even in regard to civilised 
areas ; elsewhere, and for prehistoric periods, re- 
course must be had to tradition and archaeological 
evidence. Both these sources of information have 
to be utilised with extreme caution, but where they 
agree a fair degree of probability if not of certainty 
can be attained. 

The evidences for migrations are to be sought 
mainly in the physical characters of peoples, their 
artifacts, customs, folk- tales, and language. 

The physical characters of an isolated people 
are usually fairly obvious, though their accurate 
description is difficult, and becomes still more so 
when racial mixture has taken place. The effects 
of hybridisation are as yet very imperfectly under- 
stood, as are the effects of change of environment ; 
the disentanglement of racial elements in a mixed 
people, therefore, requires the greatest care. 


Artifacts, that is objects made by man, are often 
brought forward as evidence of racial movements, 
but their occurrence may be due merely to 
borrowing. Archaeology bears the same relation 
to technology that palaeontology does to zoology, 
and the objects with which it deals are fossils in 
the true sense of the term. The evidence of either 
must be treated in a similar manner. For example, 
ethnologists learn how to recognise the artifacts 
of a given people and the differences between 
them and similar objects made by other peoples ; 
frequently characteristics of material, form, 
technique, or decoration, are so marked that many 
objects can be definitely assigned to a particular 
group of people or to a limited area. In process of 
time form, technique, and decoration may become 
modified, and then it is necessary to determine 
whether this indicates that definite evolution has 
taken place in situ, or whether influences have 
come in from elsewhere. If the latter can be 
proved, the question arises whether the change 
is due to the immigration of another people into 
the district, that is a " racial drift " ; or whether 
the innovations are the result of the imitation of 
objects that have arrived by means of loot or trade, 
that is a " cultural drift," for there can be little 
doubt that import trade if considerable and pro- 
tracted will exert a marked influence on native 


manufactures. The introduction and methods of 
utilisation of domestic animals and plants may be 
considered as analogous to the foregoing. For 
instance, the introduction of the horse into America 
was due to a racial drift, but its employment by 
the Plains Indians was a cultural drift. 

The same argument applies to a certain extent 
to customs, and religious ideas and ceremonies. 
In the latter cases there is probably always some 
personal influence, but the results may be dis- 
proportionate to the numbers ; in these instances 
the racial drift may be inappreciable, or may not 
affect the local population in the least, while the 
cultural drift may be quite noticeable. 

There has been great discussion concerning the 
evidential value of folk-tales with regard to cultural 
drift and racial drift. There is no doubt that 
they can be passed on from one people to another, 
but owing to the essential uniformity of human 
thought the same simple motives can originate 
independently. When complex tales occur, how- 
ever, in different countries, then there is a prima 
facie case for borrowing. Further, folk-tales, 
especially those dealing with mythology, often re- 
flect earlier conditions in a different geographical 

It is astonishing with what ease a people can 
adopt a foreign language, which, however, almost 


invariably undergoes structural and phonetic 
modification in the process. For example, the 
great groups of Indo-Gerrnanic languages mainly 
result from subject peoples having adopted the 
speech of their alien conquerors. The earlier 
language of a country, which in some cases under- 
went sound-shif tings, for instance, the Germanic 
languages (2, 330), often survives in place-names. 
Language is a criterion for racial-contact but not 
necessarily for migration. On the other hand, 
language has proved of great assistance in deter- 
mining the affinities and the movements of peoples 
in the New World. 

1. UJFALVY, C. DE. Las Aryens au nord et au sud de VHindou- 

Kouch, 1896. 

2. FEIST, S. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. deutschen Sprache u. Lit., xxxvi., 

PETRIE, W. N. FLINDEBS. The Revolutions of Civilisation, 1911. 

(Cf. especially chapters vi. and vii.) 
MYEES, J. L. The Davm of History, 1911. 

(These suggestive little books have appeared 

since the above was in print.) 



Two high plateaus occupy nearly two-fifths of the 
area of Asia. One, that of western Asia, includes 
Anatolia, Armenia, and Iran (Persia, Afghanistan, 
and Baluchistan), the other, the lofty plateau of 
central Asia, stretches from the Himalayas to the 
north-east. These vast regions, mostly unfit for 
agriculture or even for human settlement, assume the 
character of poor steppes and deserts, and divide 
Asia into two parts : 1, the lowlands of Siberia 
and the Aral-Caspian basin, and 2, the lowlands of 
Mesopotamia, India, China, and Manchuria. 

The great central plateau consists of several broad 
terraces, contains mountain-ranges, and is fringed 
by lofty border-ranges, which along the north- 
west border are cut into by wide trenches that 
lead by easy gradients down from the plateau to 
the lowlands. The most important of these is the 
" Jungarian Gate/' and it was down this gently 
sloping trench that the Mongol inhabitants of the 
plateau went west to invade the Ural region and 



Fmnging this plateau, from the Tian-shan to the 
Verkhoyansk Mountains, is a broad Alpine zone, 
the terraces of which are covered with a luxuriant 
grass vegetation, affording good pasturage, while 
the slopes of the hills are wooded and form rich 
hunting grounds, but not even the valleys are 
suitable for agriculture. Beyond this is an extensive, 
lofty, undulating plain, which varies from a dry 
steppe through pastoral land to the rich wheat 
lands of south-west Siberia. A similar belt of 
elevated plain runs round the south-east edge of 
the great plateau, and those parts of the plain 
which are covered with loess are the abode of a 
dense agricultural population. 

The lowlands proper, which extend over the rest 
of Siberia, consist in the south of marshy forests 
unsuitable for settlement, and further north of 
treeless, barren, and even frozen tundra. East 
of the loess in China is the great alluvial plain 
of the north, but to the south is a forested mountain 
area, which stretches to the confines of India ; 
the larger valleys open out into fertile alluvial 
plains, in which civilisations have sprung up. 
Similarly the valleys of the Ganges and Indus 
have long been centres of civilisation, while the 
jungle -covered highlands of southern India still 
harbour tribes of uncivilised hunters. Mesopotamia, 
or the broad valley of the Tigris and Euphrates, was 


the cradle of civilisation in the remotest antiquity 
(Kropotkin, 1, 345). 

When at its greatest expansion during the last 
phase of the Glacial age, the ice covered nearly 
the whole of Eur-Asia to the north of the 50th parallel 
(with the exception of the lowlands of Siberia, which 
represented gulfs in the Arctic Ocean) and a very 
large portion of the highlands to the south of this 
line. As the ice thawed immense lakes were 
formed, which in the process of desiccation became 
extensive marshes studded with countless smaller 
lakes ; later these became prairies, and later still 
in some cases arid deserts. Thus there has been 
a gradual desiccation of the greater part of Asia 
and Europe since Glacial times (Kropotkin, 1, 722) ; 
but as Huntington has shown (2) this secular 
desiccation has been varied by fluctuations, indeed 
Bruckner suggests that in about every thirty-six 
years the whole world passes through a climatic cycle. 
Another series of climatic changes comprises the 
fluctuations which took place simultaneously over 
the northern hemisphere during the Glacial epoch, 
and there appears to have been an analogous and 
intermediate series of pulsations during the historical 
period in central Asia. The periods of deficient 
rainfall in the Bruckner cycles during the nine- 
teenth century were marked in various parts of 
the world by rebellions, wars, and shif tings of 


populations (2, 373). If these minor fluctuations 
had such important effects on history, the greater 
climatic changes must have had a tremendous 
influence on the conditions affecting the life of 

There can be little doubt that man evolved 
somewhere in southern Asia, possibly during Pliocene 
or Miocene times, and it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that the early groups were not unlike 
one another, but possessed a tendency to variability 
which would be directed to some extent by geo- 
graphical conditions and fixed by isolation. As 
Palaeolithic man was certainly inter-glacial in 
Europe we may assume that man was pre-glacial 
hi Asia. The incoming of the Glacial period would 
start movements, which would be alternately 
relaxed and accentuated during the inter-glacial 
mild periods and those of increased cold ; during 
the former the movements would probably be those 
of simple expansion, but during the latter of pro- 
pulsion. Assuming the relative, but not the 
absolute, heights of the Asiatic plateaus in late 
or post-Pliocene times to have been similar to what 
they are at present, it may be suggested that a 
narrow-headed human variety occupied the lower 
lands to the north of the plateaus, eventually spread- 
ing to America. As there was more than one race 
of man in Europe in Palaeolithic times, there were 


probably several narrow-headed (dolichocephalic) 
varieties in Asia, which may have differentiated 
by Neolithic times into distinct races ; some of 
these may have become mixed with broad-headed 
(brachy cephalic) peoples and thus formed several 
of those obscure west Asiatic peoples whose affinities 
it is so difficult to unravel. The tall, fair, blue- 
eyed dolichocephals of north Europe are generally 
believed to be a variety of the Mediterranean race, 
but these may equally well be two varieties of a 
common stock, the former probably having their 
area of characterisation in the steppes north of 
the plateaus of Eur-Asia, and migrating eastwards 
and westwards as the country dried after the last 
glacial phase. It will be convenient to speak of 
them as Proto-Nordics. The prehistoric dolicho- 
cephals (Chudes) of southern Trans-Baikalia (3, 270), 
the builders of the tumuli (kurgans) of southern 
Siberia, and the dolichocephalic kurgan-builders 
of south Russia, probably belonged to this stock 
which later appears to be represented by the blond, 
blue-eyed Usuns or Wu-suns (who lived on the 
northern slopes of the Tian-shan in Chinese Turke- 
stan, and gave so much trouble to the Chinese 
two hundred years B.C.), and also by the Sacae (and 
their modern descendants the Balti), the western 
Scythians, and the Nordics of north Europe. These 
were mobile peoples who preferred a pastoral to an 


agricultural life and therefore were a source of 
unrest to their neighbours. While Mongoloid 
peoples may have existed around the central 
plateaus, the true Mongol type appears to have 
differentiated on those table-lands, whence in times 
of stress they poured forth on the neighbouring 
lowlands. The western plateaus were the area 
of characterisation of another brachycephalic race, 
which includes short and tall varieties, but is not 
at all "Mongolian." This Alpine race (17, 208) 
extends from the Hindu Kush to Brittany ; here 
and there descents have been made into the lowlands, 
but it remains an essentially upland people . Western 
Asia is the home of two main brachycephalic peoples, 
the Turki and Ugrians, who were doubtless of 
more or less common origin ; usually they are 
stated to be a very early cross between Proto- 
Nordics and Alpines, with, in places, occasional 
Mongol mixture. On the other hand they may 
be descendants of an intermediate variety between 
the two former types. South of the plateaus brunet 
dolichocephals wandered west and east ; traces 
of this stock are found scattered in south-east Asia, 
for example the Man-tse of south China, and it 
is the essential element in the Indonesians and 
possibly also in the Dravidians of India. Some 
of the last are mixed with a much lower race, 
the Pre-Dravidians, survivors of whom may be 



found among certain jungle tribes, e.g. the Veddas 
of Ceylon and the Sakai of Malacca. The last 
remnants of a Negroid stock are the pygmy 
Andamanese and the Sernang of Malacca. 

The general trend of the heterogeneous populations 
of northern Asia has been from south to north, not 
on account of any attraction, but as a result of 
pressure. Thus the Chukchi drove other tribes 
before them, as they were themselves driven north 
by Tungus and others, though when their strength 
had been greatly increased by the introduction of 
reindeer-breeding they were able to repel the 
Tungus. The Yakut, representatives of the old 
Turki stock, perhaps themselves driven north by 
the Buryat (who at the time of the first Mongol 
invasion in the thirteenth century moved from Amur 
into the Baikal region), thrust themselves between 
the Tungus tribes to the mouth of the Lena, and 
introduced cattle-breeding on the pastures of the 
Lena (13, 209 ff.) 

The cradle of the Turki appears to have been the 
Altai ; migrations have from early times flowed 
south-westwards from this area, one of which 
ultimately landed the Osmanli in Europe in the 
middle of the fourteenth century A.D. (p. 47). The 
Finno-Ugrian stock, physically allied to the Turki, 
but linguistically distinct (15, 21) originated in close 
proximity, about the headwaters of the Yenisei. 


The Sainoyad branch drifted northwards to the Arctic 
Ocean and are said to be still migrating westwards, a 
small group having recently settled in Russian Lap- 
land (4). The Finnish branch followed the course of 
the Irtish to the Urals, which formed a second centre 
of dispersion, which Szinnyei (15) suggests was their 
original home. Thence movements took place down 
the Pechora and Dvina to the' Arc tic seaboard. Others 
followed the Kama to the Volga, where permanent 
settlements were formed ; detachments from these 
spread south and west as far as the Danube by the 
seventh century A.D. (p. 45). Meanwhile, the true 
Finns wandered up the Volga and into what is now 
Finland (3, 333) ; but cf. Kipley (22, p. 358). 

The earliest known civilisation in the world arose 
north of the Persian Gulf among the Sumerians, 
a people speaking an agglutinative language, who 
are regarded by some as being of Ural-Altaic (Turki 
or Ugrian) stock. But the Babylonians of history 
were a mixed people, for Semitic influence, according 
to Winckler (20, 2), began to flow up the Euphrates 
valley from Arabia during the fourth millennium B.C. 
This influence was more strongly felt, however, 
in Akkad than in Surner, and it was in the north 
that the first Semitic empire, that of Sargon the 
Elder (c. 2500 B.C. according to E. Meyer), had its 
seat. The Assyrians were still further semitised by 
a second migration, termed Canaanitic or Amoritio, 


several hundred years later. The supremacy of 
Babylon was first established by the dynasty of 
Hammurabi (c. 1950 B.C.. earlier according to 
Winckler), which was overthrown by the Hittites 
about 1760 B.C. (16). Then followed the Kassite 
domination, which lasted from about 1760 to 1100 
(19, 425). The Kassites, who appear to be identical 
with the Cosssei of later times, a people settled 
between Babylon and Media, are of unknown 
origin. They were the foremost tribe of a great 
movement of peoples occasioned by the arrival or 
expansion of the " Aryans " in Bactria and eastern 
Iran between 2300 and 2000 B.C., 1 who perhaps 
brought Ural- Altaic tribes with them. The Kassites 
overran Media and Elam, whence they spread across 
the Tigris to Babylonia. It was probably due to 
them that the horse, first introduced by the 
" Aryans/' became common in south-west Asia (5) ; 
it was introduced into Babylon about 1900, but 
was unknown in Hammurabi's reign. They were 
gradually absorbed by the ancient civilisation, and 
Semitic influence reasserted itself once more in the 
third migration from Arabia, the so-called Aramaean, 
believed by Winckler to have taken place from the 

1 E. Meyer (Z. /. vgl. Sprachwiss., xlii. p. 16) believes that the 
" Aryans " remained in the region east of the Aral and Caspian until 
about 2000 B.C., and after that time began to make their way east- 
wards into India and south-westwards. 


middle of the second to the first half of the first 
millennium (20, 3, 7 ; 6, 15.) Associated with the 
Kassites were Aryan-speaking bands similar to 
those who conquered Mitani (in the westward bend 
of the upper Euphrates) by about 1500 B.C. 

The southward movement of the " Aryans " 
into Bactria was fateful in history, for it cut off 
the jade and other trade between Kotan and 
west Asia ; the " Aryan " conquest of Mitani 
separated Babylonia from Syria, thus deflecting 
trade to the Red Sea route. These Mitani chiefs 
preserved traces of a stage of culture somewhat, 
but not much, earlier than that indicated in the 
Rig Veda. An eastern branch of the " Aryans/' 
perhaps also associated with Turki tribes, moved 
eastward and took possession of the pasture lands 
of the western Panjab about 1700 B.C. (5, 1119). 
In later times the " Aryans " of Mitani were called 
by the Greeks Mattienoi ; they are possibly the 
ancestors of the modern Kurds. The mountaineers 
of Elam on the east continually debouched on to 
the rich plains of Mesopotamia, and c. 1180 B.C. 
Babylon was wasted by a second Elamite inva- 

From early historical times Syria was inhabited 
by Semitic peoples. Further groups of Semitic stock 
constantly invaded the land from the south, partly 
because of its intrinsic value, and partly because it 


occupied the strategic position with regard to the 
trade between Asia, Egypt, and Europe, and afforded 
opportunities of plundering the wealthy cities on 
these trade routes. Changes of climate or move- 
ments of peoples may also have contributed to 
drive them from their own home. The earlier in- 
vasions may have coincided with the first expansion 
into Mesopotamia during the fourth millennium 
B.C. A second wave of Semitic migration spread 
from Arabia northwards and westwards (Winckler's 
Canaanitic or Amoritic Migration, 20, 3). These 
Semitic movements may have had some bearing upon 
the supposed migration of the Phoenicians from the 
Persian Gulf to the Syrian coast, where they had 
established themselves by about 2000 B.C., for the 
purpose of securing the Mediterranean trade. A 
late phase of this movement possibly had some con- 
nection with the domination of Egypt about 1680 
by the Hyksos, whom some authorities regard as 
Amoritic tribes dislodged from Mesopotamia by 
the advancing Kassites and Mitani ; but their racial 
affinities are at present obscure. 

The Hyksos dominion was destroyed about 
1580 B.C. In the fifteenth century all movements 
were effectively checked by the Egyptian kings, 
Thutmose I. and his successors, who held Syria 
up to the Euphrates. Invading movements began 
again when Egypt became weak at the close of the 



eighteenth dynasty, about the middle of the four- 
teenth century B.C. 

The Hittites, a people certainly of Alpine race, 
began to move south from Cappadocia about 
2000 B.C., at all events they were warring against 
Babylon hi the eighteenth century (19, 425) ; 
a Hittite dynasty flourished at Mitani 1420-1411, 
and in the fourteenth and thirteenth centuries 
they conquered and largely occupied Syria (19, 
429). In the middle of the fourteenth century 
the Khabiri or Hebrews (" robbers "), forerunners 
of the Aramaean migration, swarmed into Syria 
from the desert as we know from the Tel el-Amarna 
tablets. This movement is perhaps to be identified 
with the conquest of Canaan described in the Book 
of Joshua. 

There was great unrest in eastern Europe and 
western Asia in the latter half of the second millennium 
B.C., arising from a southward and eastward shifting 
of European peoples, affecting both Greece and Asia 
Minor ; among the most powerful of these invaders 
were the Phrygians. The Hittite Empire was broken 
up by these movements about the beginning of the 
twelfth century. About the same time we find 
movements from the Jgean to Cyprus and the 
Syrian coast which introduced the Philistines and 
other peoples into Palestine. The fall of the Cretan 
civilisation was doubtless connected with these 


changes in the eastern Mediterranean. North 
Africa was also involved in these disturbances, 
for the Libyans warred with the Egyptians in the 
Delta, and employed northern " sea-peoples " to 
attack Egypt. 

About the ninth-eighth century B.C., the fourth 
great Semitic movement began, the so-called 
Arabian migration, which culminated in the Islamitic 
expansion of the seventh century A.D. (20, 4). 
The last phase was far-reaching in its effects, not 
only western Asia, but the whole of northern 
Africa and even southern Europe being implicated 
(pp. 58, 46). 

Political and national events caused many up- 
heavals in Asia Minor the indigenous " Alpine " 
population, of whom the Hittites were the most 
prominent, was fringed by a coastal population of 
Mediterranean stock, and the upheavals to the 
south added to the general unrest. A potent 
ferment was introduced when about 750 B.C. the 
Cimmerians (Gimirrai) and Scythians came from the 
east. Sargon repelled them with effort in 720, and 
they retired westward into Asia Minor, where they 
united with a similar band in 710 coming from the 
Bosphorus, and established a reign of terror ; they 
disappeared at the end of the seventh century. 
Keane states (3, 280) that the " Kimmerians, Mandas, 
Medes with their modern Kurd and Bakhtiari 


representatives, were all one people, who were 
almost certainly of Aryan speech." The country 
is still terrorised by the Kurds. Before the end 
of the Byzantine Empire, emigration and deporta- 
tion had reduced the population of the plateau 
of Anatolia to one-half. Hordes of Turkoman 
nomads followed the Seljuk and Ottoman conquests, 
and by the eleventh century A.D. had become 
old inhabitants of the eastern Taurus. In succeed- 
ing centuries other Turkomans and Kurds followed 
(8, 247). Thus though there have been many minor 
shiftings of allied peoples, no serious racial displace- 
ment appears to have occurred during the present 
era ; indeed the Armenians may be regarded as 
the modern representatives of the Hittites (21). 

The Turkish dominance of the Oxus region in the 
middle of the sixth century A.D. resulted in a 
westward migration of Turki tribes across northern 
Persia into Asia Minor. The Seljuk Turks effected 
a permanent occupation of that region in the 
latter part of the eleventh century, and this was 
followed by the dominance of the Osmanli Turks, 
who, after Orkhan's death in 1359, spread to the 
Balkan peninsula (p. 47). 

The greater part of Iran (p. 12) was originally 
inhabited by the broad-headed Alpines, who are still 
represented by the Tajiks, but in Susiana there was 
in ancient times and traces still persist a low- 


typed dark race, which is usually regarded as 
allied to the Pre-Dravidian stock of south India, 
or which may have been a true Negroid stock. 
From the Eur-Asian steppes came Proto-Nordics 
(p. 16), who became known to history as Medes 
and Persians, but Semitic migrations have modified 
the type of the latter as did incursions of tribes 
allied to the Turki. Some authorities, such as 
Bipley, see in the dark, dolichocephalic Persians, 
especially the Lori, a strong Mediterranean strain, 
while the Farsi are relatively blond dolichocephals, 
the " Aryans " of many authors. Very numerous 
peoples have at one time or another passed through 
or settled in south-western Asia, and it is not 
to be wondered at that the racial ethnology of this 
area is perplexing. 

So far as is known the bulk of the population 
of India has been stationary. The oldest existing 
stratum is that represented by various Pre-Dravidian 
jungle tribes. The Dravidians may have been 
always in India : the significance of the Brahui 
of Baluchistan, a small tribe speaking a Dravidian 
language, is not understood, probably it is merely 
a case of cultural drift. The Munda-speaking 
peoples (Munda, Bhumij, Ho, etc.) are stated 
to resemble so closely the Dravidians as to be 
indistinguishable from them. They appear to have 
been the original inhabitants of the valley of the 


Ganges in western Bengal ; after many wanderings, 
apparently across India (9), they settled mainly 
in Chutia Nagpur. 

The first migration into India of which we have 
evidence is that of Aryan-speaking peoples, perhaps 
early in the second millennium B.C. Their entry 
into the Panjab was a gradual one, probably ex- 
tending over centuries. They first occupied the 
fertile lands of the Panjab, their progress south-east 
being barred by the deserts of Rajputana. For a 
long time their expansion eastward was hindered 
by the dense forests which then covered the middle 
plains, but eventually they spread along the valleys of 
the Jumna and Ganges. The aboriginal elements 
were prepotent, and the so-called Aryan conquest 
was more a moral and intellectual one than a sub- 
stitution of the white man for the dark-skinned 
people (10, 60), that is, it was more social than 

There is a strongly marked brachycephalic element 
in the population of western India. Risley (11, 59) 
believes this to be a result of so-called Scythian 
invasions, but of this there does not appear to be 
sufficient evidence. The foreign element is certainly 
Alpine, not Mongolian, and it may be due to a 
migration of which the history has not been written. 

The history of north India was profoundly 
affected by ethnic disturbances which had their rise 


in central Asia. The Saka, the Se (Sek) of Chinese 
historians, were originally a horde of pastoral 
nomads, like the modern Turkomans, occupying 
a territory to the west of the Usun horde (p. 16) 
and to the north of the river Naryn (Syr Darya) 
or upper Jaxartes. About 160-150 B.C. they were 
expelled from their pasture grounds by another 
similar horde, the Yueh-chi, and compelled to 
migrate southwards. They ultimately reached 
India about 150-140 B.C., travelling probably 
through the Pamirs, Gilgit and the Suwat valley, 
until they entered the plains of Peshawar. Another 
branch advanced further to the south, perhaps 
crossed Sind, and occupied Kathiawar. Pahlava, 
or Parthians of Persia, and Yavana, or Asiatic 
Greeks, settled in western India about this time 
(12, 197-9), but the subsequent invasions of 
Dernetrios, Eukratides, and Menander, like those 
of Alexander and Antiochos the Great, were merely 
military incursions. The Hiung-nu quitted their 
pasturages in western China shortly after the 
construction of the Great Wall of China in B.C. 
214, which was built to repel the attacks of these 
and other peoples, which had been going on for 
at least a century. They encountered an allied 
Turki tribe of pastoral nomads, the Yueh-chi, 
who occupied lands in the province of Kan-suh 
in north-western China, and whom they ousted 



between 174 and 160 B.C., causing a multitude 
of from half a million to a million persons of all 
ages and both sexes to migrate westward. In the 
course of their westward migration in search of 
grazing grounds for their vast numbers of horses, 
cattle, and sheep, the Yueh-chi traversed the territory 
of the Usun, whom they defeated, and passed on 
westwards beyond lake Issyk-kul. A small section 
(the Little Yueh-chi) diverged to the south and 
settled on the Tibetan border. The main body 
then encountered the Saka, and drove them 
from their pasture grounds. About 140 B.C. 
the Hiung"-nu and Usun drove them southwards 
to Sogdiana and Bactria, lands to the north and 
south of the upper Oxus (Amu Darya), the peaceful 
inhabitants of which were reduced to subjection. 
Here they became a settled, territorial nation. 
Kadphises I., chief of the Kushan section, 
established himself as sole monarch of the Yueh-chi 
nation about 45 A.D. and Kadphises II., by destroy- 
ing the Indo-Parthian power, extended his dominion 
about 90-100 A.D. all over north-western India, as 
far as Benares, but excluding southern Sind. The 
collapse of the Kushan power in India occurred 
about 226 A.D. (12, 232-259). 

Hordes of savage Huna (Hoa or Ye- the), mixed 
Turki and Mongol peoples under Mongol leadership, 
moved westwards from the steppes of central 


Asia, one stream swept towards the valley of the 
Volga in 375 A.D. (p. 44), while the other was 
directed towards the Oxus. The latter, who became 
known as the Ephthalites or White Huns, overcame 
Persia (484 A.D.) and poured into India, carrying 
devastation over the plains of the Indus and Ganges 
and their crowded cities. They were expelled 
about 528 A.D. by a confederation of Hindu princes. 
(12, 297-300.) 

The arrival of the Turks in the Oxus valley 
in the middle of the sixth century changed the 
situation completely, and about 565 A.D. the White 
Huns were destroyed and the Turks annexed the 
whole of the Hun empire. About the middle 
of the seventh century the pressure of the Mussulmans 
of the west began to be felt in India, and this 
continued till the accession of Sultan Mahmud 
(997-1030 A.D.), by whom the conquest was first 
undertaken in earnest ; but these and other dynastic 
wars did not materially affect the racial character of 
the population. 

From very early times inhabitants of India 
proper migrated into the rich alluvial plains of 
Assam, many of whom mixed with aboriginal 
population and formed the semi-Hinduised abori- 
gines. The first Indo-Chinese invasion appears 
to have been by Tibeto-Burmans. At the end 
of the eighth century A.D. the Shan from the head 


waters of the Irawadi began to conquer Assam. 
At the end of the eighteenth century, when Assam 
was conquered by the Burmese, Khamti and other 
branches of the Tai or Shan stock entered the 
country, as did Chingpo from the upper waters 
of the Irawadi, who also are constantly moving 
southward into Burma. 

Probably two to three thousand years ago the 
coast of Burma was occupied by Indonesians 
and the interior by tribes speaking Mon-Khmer 
languages. From the north came the ancestors 
of the Tibeto-Burinan and Tai peoples, who within 
the last fifteen centuries have flooded Indo-China 
with successive swarms of conquerors, and received 
through Mon and Khmer channels a varnish of 
Indian culture. The earliest seat of the Tibeto- 
Burman-speaking peoples appears to have been 
the headwaters of the Yang-tse-kiang. There is 
no proof that the Burmans reached the Irawadi 
valley before 600 B.C. In the ninth century A.D. 
Burmans occupied the greater part of the Irawadi 
and other rivers. The Tai or Shan first appear 
in history in Yunnan, south-west China, and two 
thousand years ago small swarms of them entered 
Burma ; the foundation of the Tai principalities 
in the Salwin valley took place about the third 
century A.D. ; a great wave of migration occurred 
in the sixth century, when they peopled the Shan 


states. When the Mongol hordes under Kublai 
Khan, in the latter half of the thirteenth century, 
conquered Indo-China, the Tai went westwards, 
overran Burma, and forced the Burmans on the 
Mons, with whom they fused in the sixteenth 
century. The Karen clans were originally driven 
south by the Tai. 

The Chinese are a mixed people; at base they 
belong to an eastern Mongoloid stock, but have 
assimilated various peoples in the north and south. 
Some students believe, though without any historical 
evidence, that the progressive element of the old 
Chinese civilisation was due to a migration of a 
semi-cultured people from Chinese Turkestan, or 
even, in the first place, from further west ; indeed, 
it has been stated that in the regions of north Elam, 
Bak tribes, ancestors of the Chinese, learned the 
elements of Babylonian and Elamite culture. 
Originally they were a pastoral and hunting people, 
but they became solely agricultural. The rich 
lands of China have always proved a temptation 
to the nomadic pastoral Manchu and Mongols, who 
at various times have dominated the sedentary 
Chinese. It was as a safeguard against such 
aggressions that Shih Hwang Ti, founder of the 
Tsin dynasty (246-210 B.C.), built the Great Wall ; the 
southward movements of the Mongolo-Turki hordes 
were thus arrested and given a westward direction. 


Schurtz, following Balz, says that " the peculiarity 
of the Japanese is best explained by an admixture 
of Malay blood ; it is indeed not inconceivable that 
the political evolution which began in the south was 
due to the seafaring Malays who first set foot on 
the southern islands and mixed with the existing 
inhabitants and with immigrants from Korea " 
(13, 542). The aborigines, whom the Koreans found 
in Japan, were the Ainu, apparently an outlier of 
the Alpine race. 

Speaking broadly, there has been a continual 
movement of peoples from south China, mainly 
in a southerly direction, which has also affected 
the East Indian Archipelago. These desirable 
islands have been occupied from very early times 
by many peoples. During the human period many, 
if not all, of the islands have been connected, for 
it is only hi a few places that really deep wates 
occurs, and there is reason to believe that the earlier 
immigrants walked across by land bridges. 

The first inhabitants were probably a black 
woolly-haired race, of which the pygmy represen- 
tatives (Negritos) are the Andamanese, the Semang 
of the Malay Peninsula, the Aeta of the Philippines, 
and the pygmies of New Guinea ; the taller varieties 
are the recently extinct Tasmanians, who may have 
walked from New Guinea to Tasmania, the Papuans 
proper, and the ground stock of the Melanesians. 


We may regard the next great migration as that 
of a Pre-Dravidian stock, relics of which are found 
in the Sakai of the Malay Peninsula, and in a few 
tribes in the Archipelago. It is now commonly 
believed that the Australians essentially belong to 
this stock, having exterminated or amalgamated 
with the earlier woolly-haired peoples of that 

A careful analysis of the mixed population of the 
East Indian Archipelago indicates that there can 
be distinguished a dolichocephalic from among the 
brachy cephalic elements (18). The former is best 
denominated by the term Indonesian. This wave 
of migration followed perhaps at a considerable 
interval that of the Pre-Dravidian ; it probably 
originated from the lower valley of the Ganges. The 
southward migrations occurring in south-eastern 
Asia, to which allusion has just been made, caused 
Mongoloid brachycephals, who may be conveniently 
termed Proto-Malays, to overrun the islands, and, 
as a rule, they have dominated the Indonesians, 
although, as a matter of fact, even in very early 
times, a large amount of intermixture appears to 
have taken place. 

The Malay Peninsula was first occupied in the 
twelfth century A.D. by the true Malays, Orang 
Malayu, who crossed over from Sumatra ; thence at 
the close of the thirteenth century they spread 


over the East Indian Archipelago. But long 
previously to this other peoples had secured a foot- 
ing in Java and elsewhere. From the first century 
of our era there were migrations from India. The 
Javanese Babads tell of an Indian prince who came 
to Java about 78 or 120 A.D., where he found a 
nomadic people. Chinese infiltration probably began 
long after 220 B.C. when south China was con- 
quered from the aboriginal population and a sea- 
board acquired, but commercial relations existed 
with Java and other islands hi the fifth century A.D. 
and were continued for a long period. According to 
Fritsch (14, 14) the Chinese Fa Hien (or Hsien) 
visited Java in the fifth century A.D. Arabian 
traders voyaged to the East Indian Archipelago long 
before the time of Muhammad, but Islam changed 
the Arab trader into a teacher of the new doctrine ; 
it was not till the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
that much proselytising was effected, and even so the 
influence of the Arabs was cultural rather than 
racial. At the beginning of the sixteenth century 
the Portuguese made settlements and were followed 
later by other European peoples. 

A mixture of Proto-Malayans with Indonesians, 
whom we may call Proto-Polynesians, drifted into 
the west Pacific and gave to the black, woolly-haired 
natives their language and some elements of higher 
culture, the resultant mixed peoples being the 


Melanesians. Later migrations fared further into 
the Pacific, probably without delaying their progress 
through Melanesia, or possibly passing round to the 
east of it, for only certain Polynesians show traces of 
Melanesian mixture. The Samoan islands appear 
to have been their first centre of dispersal within 
the Pacific, later Tahiti and Raratonga were starting- 
points for fresh discoveries. An admirable concise 
account of the wanderings of the Polynesians is given 
by S. Percy Smith (7), who believes that the parent 
stock can be traced to India about 450 B.C., and 
that a migration to Java took place in 65 B.C., where 
they resided for about a hundred years ; but all 
these early dates are obviously very problematical. 
In 600 A.D. Polynesians were living in Tonga-nui and 
Samoa. Hawaii was first settled in 650 and Mar- 
quesas was probably occupied twenty-five years later. 
In 850 New Zealand was visited ; various voyages 
thither took place subsequently which culminated 
in the definite occupation of New Zealand by " the 
Fleet " in 1350. Hawaii was visited in 1100 and 1225, 
but all voyages to that group ceased after 1325 till 
the islands were rediscovered by Captain Cook. 
Some idea of the enterprise of these remarkable 
navigators in their sailing canoes may be gathered 
from the fact that, inspired by the voyage of Ui-te- 
rangiora to the Antarctic seas in 650, Te Aru-tanga- 
nuku three hundred years later sailed in search of 


the wonders of the deep. He reached the land of 
snow and described icebergs, sea-elephants, and the 
long fronds of the bull-kelp. Even the remote Easter 
Island was colonised, but there is no evidence that 
Polynesians reached the coasts of America. 

1. KROPOTKIN, P. Geog. Journ., xxiii., 1904, pp. 176, 331, 722. 

2. HTJNTINGTON, E. The Pulse of Asia, 1907. 

3. KEANE, A. H. Man Past and Present, 1899. 

4. MONTEFIORE, A. Brit. Ass. Rep., 1895, p. 828. 

6. KENNEDY, J. <7. R. Asiatic 8., Oct. 1909, p. 1107. 

6. WINCKLER, H. The World's History (ed. Helmolt), iii., 1903, 

p. 1. 

7. SMITH, S. PERCY. Hawaiki : the original home of the Maori, 


8. HOGARTH, D. G. The Nearer East, 1902. 

9. GRIGNARD, F. A. Anthropos, iv., 1909, p. 1. 

10. CROOKE, W. The North- Western Provinces of India, 1897. 

11. RISLEY, H. H. The People of India, 1908. 

12. SMITH, VINCENT A. The Early History of India, 1908. 

13. SCHUBTZ, H. The World's History (ed. Helmolt), 11., 1904, 

p. 535. 

14. FRITSCH, G. Globus. xci., 1907, p. 18. 

15. SZINNYEI, J. Finnisch-ugrische Sprachtoissenschaft, 1910. 

16. MEYER, E. 8itz.-Ber. Jc. preuss. Akad. d. Wiss, 1908, p. 656. 

17. UJFALVY, C. DE. Les Aryens au nord et au sud de VHindou- 

Kouch, 1896. 

18. HADDON, A. C. Arch, per VAntrop. e VEtnol., xxxi., 1901, 

p. 341 ; an Appendix to Hose and Mac- 
Dougall's The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, 1912. 

19. BREASTED, J. H. A History of the Ancient Egyptians, 1908. 

20. WINCKLER, H. Auszug aus der V order asiatischen Geschichte, 


21. LTTSCHAN, F. VON. Journ. Roy. Anth. Inst., xli., 1911, p. 221. 

22. RIPLEY, W. Z. The Races of Europe, 1900. 



THE climatic and geographical changes that have 
taken place in the recent geological history of 
Europe are dealt with in many books on European 
geology, but it may not be superfluous to recall to 
the reader's mind a few of the more salient modifica- 
tions that have occurred. During a considerable 
portion of the Glacial age Scandinavia, north Russia, 
north Germany and the British Isles, except the 
south of England and probably the south-west of 
Ireland, were covered by the ice-cap, and confluent 
glaciers covered the higher mountain ranges to the 
south. The great Hungarian lake was separated 
from the Eur-Asiatic Mediterranean (Euxine- 
Caspian-Aral Sea) by the glaciers of the Carpathians. 
Between these lakes and the ice-cap there was a 
variable amount of tundra and steppe-land stretch- 
ing from western Europe to central Asia. The 
Mediterranean consisted of a western and an eastern 
lake, the latter extending over the plains of 
Lombardy. The western European lands and the 
remaining portion of Italy were connected with 
northern Africa by two broad land-bridges. An 



elevated land surface extended from the western 
plateaus of Asia to the confines of north Italy. 

As the ice retreated the former narrow zone 
between the ice-cap and the rapidly shrinking 
central lakes became increasingly habitable tundras 
and steppes, and was the area of characterisation 
of the Nordic race, who for a long time were geo- 
graphically cut off from their neighbours to the 
south. The then forested and fertile uplands of 
the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor were similarly 
isolated from the north and south. The gradually 
increasing Mediterranean never entirely cut off 
communications between south Europe and north 

Although the archaeology of Europe has been 
better studied than that of any other portion of the 
old world, we cannot yet recover the complete history 
of its peoples. It is impossible to deal profitably 
with periods preceding the Palaeolithic age, the 
earliest phase of which was marked by rude stone 
implements, of which the counterparts are found 
widely spread in Africa and are numerous as far as 
south India. No indication exists as to whether 
these were fashioned by the same race of men, 
though it is permissible to suppose that Europe was 
entered from the south. Several races of men 
existed in Europe in Palaeolithic times, of which the 
Mousterian or Neanderthal race was the least 


specialised. Remains of a race exhibiting certain 
Negroid features have been found in a cave at 
Grimaldi, near Mentone. Ivory statuettes of palaeo- 
lithic age indicate that some of the population at all 
events possessed the great development of fatty tissue 
(steatopygy) which is characteristic of the Bushmen. 
After the close of the Palaeolithic period the main 
existing races of Europe began to appear. Various 
branches of the Mediterranean race first spread over 
southern and western Europe and the British Islands 
as Neolithic man. The pygmy dolichocephals of 
Neolithic times, whose remains have been found in 
Switzerland, may possibly be representatives of a 
race that has disappeared, leaving traces of its short 
stature in other countries. During the Neolithic period 
the forerunners of the Alpine race expanded west- 
wards along the mountainous forest-zone of Europe 
and up the valley of the Danube, and settled in 
central France. The Northern, or Nordic, race 
extended into western Europe later. As in western 
Asia, so in Europe, the Alpine race consists of short 
and tall stocks. On the whole, this race has kept 
faithfully to its upland habitat, but in Neolithic 
times members of it spread across western Germany 
to Denmark and south-western Norway, coming 
in contact with the tall, fair dolichocephals of the 
Northern race. Thus in north-central Europe a 
tall, broad-headed people arose who brought the 


fashion of erecting round barrows into Britain. 
According to Rice Holmes (1, 424-454) bronze was 
brought to Britain by more typical members of the 
Alpine race, possibly about 1800 B.C., and the first 
of various invasions of Keltic-speaking peoples 
probably arrived here about 800 B.C. The Umbrians 
passed south into Italy during the bronze age, but 
were checked and driven up into the Apennines by 
the rise of the Etruscan power early in the first 
millennium B.C. The Etruscans are said by tradition 
to have come from Lydia, but this may have been 
mainly a cultural drift. 

The mixed peoples of Northern and Alpine descent, 
in which the Northern blood predominated, appear 
to have possessed exceptional virility. The ancient 
writers indiscriminately termed them Keltoi, and 
described them as tall, fair-haired, and grey-eyed (2). 
The earliest historical movement of this stock was 
that of the Achseans, who about 1450 B.C., with their 
iron weapons mastered the bronze-using inhabitants 
of Greece. Later the Cimmerians, whom we are not 
justified in calling Kelts, from their home north of the 
Black Sea wandered into Thrace and crossed over 
to Asia Minor, others, when hard pressed by the 
Scythians, passed round the east side of the Black 
Sea to Asia Minor (p. 24). Keltic-speaking peoples 
during long periods swarmed across the Rhine into 
France, and were there firmly established at latest 


by the seventh century B.C. They are believed to 
have occupied Spain at the beginning of the sixth 
century B.C., and about the same time may have 
made their first appearance in Italy. A later and 
much more important wave, shortly before 400 B.C., 
broke up the Etruscan power and took Rome 
(390 B.C.). 

A repetition of earlier movements westwards 
across the Rhine is to be found in the case of the 
Belgse, a Kelto-Teutonic people, who considerably 
before the first century B.C. occupied the north- 
eastern part of Gaul and about the same time 
acquired part of the south of Britain. 

Volcse was the name originally applied to a 
Keltic-speaking people in west Germany ; they 
ultimately moved to the south of France and else- 
where. Their name is important as it came to be 
used by Teutonic peoples for foreigners of Keltic 
nationality as in the cases of Old High German, 
Walha, Anglo-Saxon Walas, and our words Wales 
and Welsh. 

Thenceforward the great movements in and from 
northern Europe were mainly those of purely 
Teutonic peoples. 

The Ciinbri, neighbours of and probably akin to 
the Teutoni (7, 214), driven from the north of 
Denmark, it is said, by inundations, made their 
way into the Danube valley, then turned west and 


ravaged Gaul ; finally, they invaded Italy and were 
destroyed by the Romans in 101 B.C. 

During the last two or three centuries before the 
Christian era the Teutonic peoples appear to have 
been pressing the Keltic peoples across the Rhine ; 
this movement was stopped by the Romans from 
the tune of Julius Caesar onwards. Augustus 
actually reduced the whole of west Germany, but 
after his time the Romans had to be content with the 
Rhine as their frontier. In the latter part of the 
second century A.D., the Teutonic pressure became 
formidable on the Danube frontier, to which the 
campaigns of Marcus Aurelius gave a temporary 
relief. Not long afterwards the Goths were moving 
in a south-easterly direction, and early in the third 
century A.D. came in conflict with the Romans in 
the neighbourhood of the Black Sea. In the fourth 
century, when the Roman Empire was weak, the 
Goths, Vandals, and other Teutonic peoples made 
their way into the Balkan Peninsula and adjacent 
regions. Early in the fifth century the Vandals 
moved westwards, overran Gaul and Spain, and 
formed a kingdom in the north of Africa (429 A.D.). 
The result of this movement of the Vandals was 
that the Roman frontier in western Germany was 
destroyed, and the Alemanni and Bavarians pushed 
their way southwards as far as the Alps. A few 
years later the Visigoths penetrated into Italy and 


captured Rome in 410 A.D. ; thence they moved into 
the south of France and Spain, where their kingdom 
lasted until the beginning of the eighth century. 

In the second quarter of the fifth century A.D., 
the Romans had to abandon all their territories west 
of the lower Rhine to the Franks, who for some three 
quarters of a century or more had been pushed west- 
wards by the Saxons. The Frankish movements 
were brought to a head by Clovis, who towards the 
end of the fifth century succeeded in conquering 
almost the whole of Gaul. About 507 he deprived 
the Visigoths of southern Gaul of most of their 
possessions. These and other movements of peoples 
in Europe during the present era are shown in a 
series of admirable maps compiled by Petrie (3). 

Huns, coming from central Asia (p. 29), appeared 
in Europe in the latter part of the fourth century, 
and were welded by Attila into a powerful kingdom 
in central Europe. They conquered all the Teutonic 
peoples in this region, and through pressure from 
them the Burgundians were forced to move west- 
wards into the east of France (c. 443 A.D.). The 
disruption of the Huns resulted from their defeat at 
Chalons in 451 and Attila's death in 453. Shortly 
after this the Ostrogoths, who had been subject to 
the Huns, began to assert their strength against the 
Romans. Under their king Theodoric they con- 
quered Italy (489-493), where their kingdom lasted 


till about 554. In the meantime other Teutonic 
nations had been coming southwards to the Danube 
region, among them the Langobardi, who by this 
time had settled in what is now Austria. Some time 
in the sixth century a new wave of invasion spread 
from Asia, known as that of the Avars. They swept 
across Russia, driving Bulgars, Slavs, and others 
before them, till they reached the lower Danube, 
on the left bank of which Justinian gave them land. 
In 562 they fought with the Franks on the Elbe. 
Langobardi and Avars combined and crushed the 
Gepidae, who were dominant after the departure of 
the Ostrogoths (8, 24), and in 567 the Langobardi, 
under their King Alboin, moved into Italy, where 
they permanently settled. This was the last of the 
great Teutonic migratory movements. The Avars 
were thus left in command of the greater part of the 
Danube valley. Later, with the Slavs, who had 
reached Hungary across the Carpathians in the 
sixth century, they overran the Balkan Peninsula, 
nearly capturing Constantinople in 625 ; they were 
finally crushed in 796 by Pippin I. of Italy, acting for 
Charlemagne. In 635 the Bulgars, who had come 
with the Huns from the south Russian steppe, re- 
volted from the Avar dominion and subsequently 
crossed the Danube into the Balkan Peninsula and 
effected settlements in Italy in 680. The Hunagars 
had advanced from the Urals to the Volga in 550, 


and reached the Danube about 886. Joined by the 
Magyars and other Turki tribes they dominated the 
Slavs, and founded the kingdom of Hungary in 
Pannonia, which absorbed all that remained of the 
successive Hun and Avar empires of the fifth and 
sixth centuries (4, 345-6). The westward migration 
of Asiatics into Europe ceased about the seventh 
century ; their advance was for the future directed 
into Syria and along the north coast of Africa, but 
in the eighth century the Arabs with Berbers pushed 
into Spain and France from Mauretania, and later 
made incursions into other Mediterranean countries. 
We have seen that the British Isles were early 
inhabited by a branch of the Mediterranean stock 
(p. 40), and were subsequently conquered by in- 
vasions of Keltic-speaking peoples. In the third 
century A.D. Teutonic peoples appeared in the 
British seas, and this movement increased in in- 
tensity during the following centuries, bringing the 
Jutes, Saxons and Angles from Denmark into our 
country. About the same time the Saxons were 
raiding in Normandy and Picardy, and established 
themselves about Bayeux (451). From the end of 
the eighth century onwards we find a series of 
maritime movements, often on a large scale, from 
Scandinavian countries. They brought about 
Scandinavian settlements in the British Isles in the 
course of the ninth century, and on the north coast of 


Europe, especially in Normandy. At the same time 
other movements spread across the Baltic, the chief 
settlements being Kief and Novgorod, which led 
ultimately to the foundation of the Russian Empire 
by the Varangians in the course of the tenth 

The Turks approached Europe from south of 
the Caspian Sea : in 1063 the Seljuks had crossed 
the Euphrates and in 1084 occupied Asia Minor ; 
Jerusalem was captured in 1071. After the lapse of 
two centuries the Osmanli or Ottomans (p. 25) began 
a fresh advance from Phrygia, gradually establish- 
ing themselves in the Balkan Peninsula ; Macedonia 
was occupied in 1373, in 1385 they extended north- 
wards and took Sophia, in 1453 Constantinople was 
taken, and in 1460 the Morea. Nearly a century 
later they conquered Hungary, which was under 
Turkish dominance from 1552 to 1687. 

The Slavs, who belong to the Alpine race, seem 
to have had their area of characterisation in Poland 
and the country between the Carpathians and the 
Dnieper ; they may be identified with the Venedi. 
Lefevre (5, 156) emphasises the mixture of races 
embodied in the Slavs, between whom and the 
Germanic peoples constant overlapping has taken 
place. The great south and west movements of the 
Teutonic peoples were followed by corresponding 
advances of Slavonic tribes, who spread across the 


Oder and Elbe and down the Vistula to the Baltic. 
Their wide distribution over north-east Germany 
by the sixth century is attested by place-names. 
During the last millennium the German language 
has regained the ground lost, but the broad-headed 
Slavic type persists (10, p. 239). The south-west- 
ward expansion of the Slavs had by the end of the 
sixth century carried them across Bohemia as far as 
the eastern Alps ; thence they went across Pannonia 
and Illyria to the Adriatic, and in combination with 
the Avars occupied most of the Balkan Peninsula. 
By about the ninth century they had extended across 
the area occupied by the Finns and established them- 
selves at Novgorod, and apparently penetrated 
to the Oka and Upper Volga. Their northward 
expansion was uninterrupted, but in the south-east 
it was checked by the advent of the Turks. The 
southern division of Slavs was cut off from the 
northern by the Magyar empire and later by the 
growth of the Roumans (9, 35). 

This general survey of movements shows that the 
prehistoric trend of Asiatic peoples from east to west 
has been continued during the first millennium of our 
era by steppe peoples, in this case arriving north of 
the Caspian ; the Osmanli, who came in somewhat 
later, alone followed the old route of the Alpine race. 
Although the hordes of Asiatic nomads made a pro- 
found impression in Europe and led to many move- 


ments of population, only in relatively few places did 
they effect permanent settlements. The Northern 
race, once settled along the shores of the Baltic and 
North Sea, constituted a fresh source of disturbance. 
They were a people lightly attached to the soil, and 
streams of migration radiated west and south ; there 
was no special inducement to move east, and in any 
case advance in that direction was checked by in- 
vasions from Asia. On the other hand, the occur- 
rence of gold in Ireland and the rich soil of France 
and northern Italy were strong attractions for 
migrating west and south. The Alpine peoples had 
developed the art of metal-working, first in bronze 
and later in iron, and, having command of the trans- 
European trade-routes, had advanced in civilisation. 
Their culture profoundly affected the Nordic 
tribes with whom they came in contact, and with 
whom they mixed to a greater or less extent. It is 
these (to whom the term Kelt may be best applied) 
who formed the vanguard of the migrations from 
northern Europe. It is interesting to note that, 
despite all the movements which have taken place, 
the distribution of the racial elements in the popula- 
tion of Europe is very similar to that of late Neolithic 
times (6, 9). 

1. HOLMES, T. RICE. Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius 

Canar, 1907. 

2. RIDOBWAY, W. Art. " Celts," in Encyd. Brit, Ed. xi., 1910-11. 


3. PETRIE, W. M. FLINDERS. Journ. Anth. Inst., xxxvi., 1906. 

4. KEANE, A. H. Man Past and Present, 1899. 

5. LEFEVRE, A. Germains et Slaves, 1903. 

6. FEIST, S. " Europa im Lichte der Vorgeschichte," Quell. 

u. Forsch. z. alien Gesch. u. Geog., 19, 1910. 

7. CHADWICK, H. M. The Origin of the English Nation, 1907. 

8. VAMBERY, A. Hungary (The Story of the Nations), 1887. 

9. BEDDOE, J. The Anthropological History of Europe, 1893. 
10. RIPLEY, W. Z. The Races of Europe, 1900. 



SPEAKING broadly, Africa consists of a great plateau 
of varying elevations, almost everywhere over 1000 
feet high, with broader or narrower coastal low- 
lands. The edge of the plateau frequently rises into 
discontinuous mountain-chains, hence few of the 
rivers are navigable for any great distance on account 
of rapids. The great area of rainfall and consequent 
rich vegetation extends roughly from Gambia to 
the Nile at Sobat junction, then south to the west of 
the eastern mountain zone as far as the Zambezi ; it 
thus includes the whole Congo basin, and is most in- 
tensive north of the Gulf of Guinea and in the upper 
Congo basin. North and south of this we pass to 
park scenery, grass steppes, and ultimately to deserts. 
The coast lands from Morocco to Tunis, and again in 
the extreme south-east, become more fertile. These 
conditions profoundly affect the occupations and 
movements of the population. 

De Preville in his brilliant generalisation (1) 
divides Africa into four zones : (1) The northern 
deserts, characterised, passing from north to south, by 
horses, camels, goats, cows. (2) The eastern moun- 




tains, the plateaus of which are occupied by pastoral 
peoples, while hunting, collecting, and cultivation are 
practised in the valleys and lowlands. (3) The 
southern steppes, consisting of a northern and 
eastern margin of bush veld, which merges into grass 
veld and finally into the western desert. The more 
favourable lands support people who combine a 
pastoral with an agricultural mode of life ; in the 
poorer regions the peoples are simply herders or 
hunters. (4) The tropical forests, inhabited by 
hunting peoples and those employed in petty 
agriculture. In the southern Congo region manioc 
is largely grown ; north of this the banana is a staple 
food. On the northern watershed of the Congo the 
grain-bearing grass eleusine is grown, while in the 
drier districts to the north dura (Indian millet or 
Guinea corn) is cultivated. 

Africa affords a striking example of the general 
rule that the more a people is concerned with a 
pastoral life the more mobile it is, and on the other 
hand that sedentary habits are induced by cultivation 
of the soil ; there is, therefore, a tendency for agri- 
culturists to become passive and to be overlorded by 
the more energetic herders. Petty agriculture alone 
obtains in the tropical forest area ; in the more open 
lands, beyond the range of the tsetse fly, the Bantu 
represent all transitions between a purely nomadic 
pastoral and a purely agricultural people, according 


to local conditions. The wide expansion of peoples of 
this stock may be largely attributed to this combina- 
tion. Apart from any considerations as to the desic- 
cation of regions of Africa, the natural increase of 
population would cause the herders of the small 
plateaus to debouch into neighbouring lands, the 
agricultural inhabitants of which would be readily 
conquered by a people whose superior organisation 
and mobility have been created by their mode of 
life. The aversion of the true herder to manual 
labour is a potent incentive to conquest, for example 
the cow-people (BaHima) have dominated the 
aborigines of Enkole and the BuNyoro of Uganda 
(2) in order that these agriculturists may grow 
millet to make the beer, of which the conquerors 
drink large quantities. This also accounts for the 
existence of servile tribes of hunters and smiths in 
east Africa. 

Another inducement to movement, operating in 
the case of the west African Negro, is the need for 
salt experienced by purely vegetarian peoples, which 
in this instance impels them towards the sea. The 
slave trade, as carried on under Arab influence, has also 
contributed powerfully to the dislocation of tribes. 

Before dealing with individual migrations in Africa 
a few general considerations are necessary as to the 
history of man in that continent. In geologically 
recent times Africa was connected by several land 


bridges with Europe, the Red Sea being an inland 
lake. Early man could thus wander on foot from one 
continent to the other. There is reason to believe 
that mankind did not originate in Africa ; but that 
all the main races in that continent reached it from 
southern Asia. Implements of palaeolithic type are 
found from Somaliland to the Atlantic, in the Congo 
State, and from the Zambezi valley to the Cape. We 
know nothing about the men who fashioned these 
implements, which are of very great antiquity ; it 
is not improbable that we have here indications of a 
north and south divarication of Palaeolithic man 
after he entered east Africa. The next immigration 
would seem to have been that of the pygmy folk, who 
later specialised into Bushmen and Negrillos ; this 
movement was perhaps very little prior to, or contem- 
poraneous with, the westerly drift of the primitive 
Negro. These short and tall peoples are probably 
varieties of one ancient Negroid stock. Even as 
late as Ptolemaic and Roman times a nomad people 
occupied the desert between the Nile and the Red 
Sea : apparently, like the Bushmen and Hottentots, 
they were not a black-skinned people (12, 590). 

The Bantu-speaking peoples are a mixture of 
Negroes with Hamites and in places with other 
aboriginal peoples. Stuhlmann (3, 147) terms the 
earliest Hamitic arrivals Proto-Hamites, and suggests 
that the movement began in the latter part of the 


Glacial period. Successive migrations of light- 
skinned, pastoral Hamites came later. The earliest 
of these spread all over north Africa, those in the 
east were the archaic Egyptians, to the west were the 
Libyans (and their descendants the Berbers) ; those 
who crossed the Mediterranean formed the European 
branches of the Mediterranean race. Stuhlmann 
assumes that Neolithic man in Europe was an immi- 
grant from Africa at the end of the Palaeolithic period 
and did not develop in situ from Palaeolithic man. 
He thus supports in the main the well-known views of 
Sergi (10) and Keane (11), and as we shall see (p. 56), 
Elliot Smith gives corroborative evidence that the 
area of characterisation of this stock was in northern 
Africa. Another branch gave rise to the Hottentots 
(p. 61), while later immigrants peopled the Horn of 
Africa. Himyarites or southern Arabians crossed 
to east Africa, and true Arabs journeyed by the 
Isthmus of Suez at various periods from the dawn 
of history, and in time overran large areas of Africa. 
At the beginning of history Asiatics came into 
Egypt, at first from the south, bringing possibly 
bronze and probably the plough and corn. Later, 
about 300 B.C., southern Semites settled in Abyssinia 
(3, 48). In the seventh and eighth centuries A.D., 
Arabs carried the sword and the Koran into Africa 
and dominated the whole of the northern seaboard. 
In the ninth century, Jews and Jewish Arab immi- 


grants acquired the domination of Abyssinia ; their 
descendants are the modern Falasha. Arab, Persian, 
and Indian influences have also affected the east 
coast of Africa, and the Arab slave trade has made 
itself felt throughout tropical Africa. 

Professor G. Elliot Smith has demonstrated, mainly 
from osteological evidence, that more than three thou- 
sand years B.C., and we know not how long previously, 
the whole of Egypt and Nubia was inhabited by a 
dolichocephalic race of feeble muscular development 
and slightly below the average stature of mankind. 
Its members belonged to the small, dark-haired, 
black-eyed, glabrous group of people, such as are 
found, on the one side, on the southern shores of 
Europe, and, on the other, in Arabia. But much 
as the archaic Egyptian resembles the Mediterranean 
European and the Arab, he presents an even closer 
likeness to the Berber (7, 9). In early dynastic 
times a considerable alien element had already 
poured into the Delta and was being infused into 
the Thebaid or Upper Egypt. It was characterised 
by higher stature, larger and broader head, a 
narrower and more prominent nose, and greater 
muscularity. There can be no doubt that this 
alien element came from the east, most likely from 
Syria, for the remains of the Christians who came 
in the sixth century from Syria or Asia Minor and 
settled about Philse show similar peculiarities. The 


alien element slightly modified the archaic race, and 
this mixed type was at first confined to Lower 
Egypt, but on the union of the White Crown of 
the Thebaid with the Red Crown of Lower Egypt, 
a more intimate mixing took place throughout 
Egypt, and this blend became the historic or dynastic 
Egyptians, the type having undergone remarkably 
little change since then. Among the earliest known 
pre-dynastic remains from Upper Egypt a certain 
number of skulls present variable Negro characters. 
Negro influence has always affected Egypt, but it 
becomes slighter the further one goes north (23). 

Nubia was originally inhabited by the archaic 
Egyptians, and it was not till near the time of the 
pyramid-builders that any appreciable number of 
Negroes came north. Lower Nubia then became the 
crucible in which a majority of the old race were 
blended with a small but ever increasing number of 
Negroes. The eventual product of this mixture is the 
Nubian (7, 14). Most of the Negroes who first mixed 
with the archaic Egyptians were small, and were 
doubtless related to the Bushman or an allied stock. 
Tall Negroes also came north in these early times, 
but it was not till Egypt loosened her hold on Nubia 
(during the Third Dynasty, c. 2980-2900 B.C.) that 
the tall Negroes came in any numbers (8, 34-36). 
Oetteking (9, 65) has also stated that the racial 
elements in Egypt are Bushman, Negro, Libyan, 


Hamito-Semite ; he admits a very small percentage 
of brachycephaly from some Asiatic source, but does 
not specify more closely its place of origin. The 
historical invasions of Egypt were by peoples of 
such close physical similarity that the racial type 
was little affected by them ; thus the invasions of 
the Delta by the Libyans from the west, and the 
Mediterranean " sea-peoples " from the north in 
the thirteenth and twelfth centuries B.C. (21, 187), 
made no lasting impression on the population, nor 
did the Libyan dominance from 945 to 712 B.C., the 
rulers being completely egyptianised (15, 364). 

According to Keane (13, 102) some two thousand 
years ago, Nuba (Negroes) migrated from their home 
in the Kordofan highlands to the Kargey oasis 
(Diocletian's Nobatse), and others to the Nile about 
Meroe (Strabo's Nubse). Since then there have 
always been Nubians in the Nile valley, mainly in 
the region of the Cataracts : they call themselves 
Barabra, and have now intermingled with Hamites 
and Semites. 

Since Neolithic times the Mediterranean race has 
occupied Africa north of the Sahara. Apart from 
Phoenician, Roman, and Greek colonies, and the in- 
cursions of the Vandals and Alans from Spain, the 
only alien racial element has been supplied by the 
Arabs, who arrived in the seventh century, and still 
remain there. Some of the Berbers, driven south by 


them, developed into powerful desert tribes (e.g. 

The Fulani appear to be originally of Berber stock, 
and to have drifted south, but by some they are 
regarded as of direct Hamitic origin. Wherever they 
came from hi the first instance, they mix^d largely 
with the indigenous population. In the early 
centuries of our era they were living on the Senegal 
River, and were making their presence felt. In the 
thirteenth century nomad Cow-Fulani migrated east- 
ward into Hausaland and Bornu, and at the end of 
the sixteenth century spread to Lake Chad. Their 
gradual invasion of Hausaland during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries culminated hi a 
military and political conquest in the early nine- 
teenth century. Thus a pastoral people of non- 
Negro origin dominated the Hausa, a distinctly 
Negro people. A mixed people of Fulani-Negro 
origin, the Jolof, have long constituted the most 
important element hi Senegambia ; they first be- 
came known to history in the middle of the fifteenth 

From Gambia to Sherboro the western coastland 
has constantly received the remnants of peoples 
ejected from the Sudan. The Mandingo, another 
mixed people of Fulani-Negro extraction but with 
Tuareg and Arab infusion (19, i. 14), at a remote 
period pushed south from the upper Niger through 


north-west Liberia and east Sierra Leone ; Man- 
dingo, Kru, and Kpwesi now represent the three 
main types of Liberia. The Kru migrated to the 
coast some three centuries ago, retreating be- 
fore the Mandingo and Fulani ; they first settled 
about the mouth of the Cavalla River, subsequently 
advancing westwards. The lowest type of Liberian 
Negro has been gradually pressed south or enslaved. 
A steady infiltration of Muhammadan Mandingo 
from the north continues to influence northern and 
western Liberia. The Ashanti and Fanti (of the 
Tshi-speaking group) should be regarded as prob- 
ably a single people migrating coastward, part of 
which, the Ashanti, remained beyond the forest belt 
on the first terraces of the highlands, while the rest, 
the Fanti, reached the Gold Coast. The Yoruba 
tribes, who appear to have a non-Negro strain, moved 
to the Slave Coast from the interior at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, driving the Ewe-speaking 
tribes westwards. The Yoruba movement was 
caused by the influx of Hausa into the north of 
their territory, pressed thither by the Fulani 
(20, 2, 10). The Niger delta harbours remnants of 
many peoples driven thither by these later arrivals. 
The first African home of the agricultural Negroes 
should probably be sought in the region north of the 
great lakes, whence they spread over tropical Africa, 
perhaps pressed westward by the encroaching Proto- 


Hamites. The thickset forest Negro represents the 
more primitive type, while the Nilotic Negro of the 
open land from the Nile to the Atlantic is tall and 
long-limbed, in many cases with some infusion of 
Hamitic blood. 

There are still slight traces of an early occupation 
by the Bushmen of the hunting grounds of tropical 
east Africa and probably of the country further 
north (4, 421 ; 5, 514). Thence they gradually 
drifted south, keeping to the more open grass lands 
where they could hunt, and at the dawn of history 
Bushmen were roaming over the whole country south 
of the Zambezi. The Negrilloes meanwhile became 
restricted to the great forest areas of the interior ; 
their southernmost extension is possibly represented 
by the Kattea of the northern Transvaal. 

Contact between Bushmen and Hamites, pre- 
sumably in the north-east, gave rise to the Hottentots, 
who shared the pastoral habits of the Hamites and 
the aversion to agriculture which characterises these 
herders and hunters like the Bushmen. Thus the 
Hottentots became pastoral nomadic hunters, 
stronger than the Bushmen but unable to withstand 
the Bantu. Their migration from the eastern high- 
lands took place much later than that of the Bush- 
men. They took a south-westerly course across the 
savanna country south of Tanganyika, and moved 
down the west coast till they reached the extreme 


south of the continent (16). What is now Cape 
Colony was inhabited solely by Bushmen and 
Hottentots on the arrival of the Dutch in 1652, who 
formed the vanguard of the European colonists. 

A branch of the Negro stock blended with Proto- 
Hamites in what is now Uganda and British East 
Africa, giving rise to the Bantu-speaking peoples, 
with some admixture of Negrillo or Bushman 
elements. The Bantu are cattle-rearers who 
practise agriculture. The more vigorous people 
seized the small plateaus which provided pasture, 
while the conquered tribes hunted or tilled in the low 
country. From these highlands of limited extent 
the population overflowed southwards along the 
savannas and open country. No data exist for a 
history of the early phases of this great expansion, 
but we learn from an Arab writer of the tenth 
century that Bantu-speaking people had by that 
time reached the Zambezi. The detailed history of 
these tribes is comparatively recent (5, 6) ; at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century there were 
three main groups south of the Zambezi : 

1. The south-eastern group, composed of Ama- 
Zulu and AmaXosa, still occupies the plateaus 
between the Drakensberg mountains and the 
Indian Ocean. They represent the northern and 
southern branches of a migration down the east 
coast, possibly about the fifteenth century. The 


AmaXosa have never crossed the Drakensberg, but 
about 1800 they spread south as far as Kaaimans 
River, Mossel Bay, being driven back in 1835 by the 
colonists to Great Fish River, which had been fixed 
in 1778 as the boundary between Boers, Hottentots, 
and Bantu. The AmaZulu have long occupied the 
coast north of the Tugela River with kindred tribes 
extending to the Zambezi. Rapid and extensive 
movements followed the rise of Chaka (1783-1828), 
for instance the southward flight of the AmaNgwana 
driving the AmaHlubi before them. About 1817 
the AmaNdabili (MaTabili) separated under 
Umsilikazi, crossed the Drakensberg, and went 
north-west through the Transvaal, scattering the 
BeChuana. Repulsed by the Boers, they withdrew 
to the Zambezi, but were driven out by the tsetse 
fly. They destroyed the villages of the MaKalanga 
(MaKalaka) and settled in Mashonaland, pushing 
the MaShona to north-east. 

2. The great central region was occupied very early 
by Bantu peoples, who drove out or enslaved the 
Bushmen. At the beginning of last century the 
pastoral and agricultural forbears of the BaSuto 
occupied the river beds beyond the Drakensberg, 
with the aggressive BaTlokua further north ; the 
more settled agricultural BeChuana lived west of 
the Marico River, and were expanding by detach- 
ments between the Orange River and the Zambezi 


and westwards to the Kalahari desert ; and the 
MaShona and MaKalanga were to the north-east. 
The MaKalanga, after three hundred years' occupa- 
tion of the country between the Limpopo and the 
Zambezi (17, i. 291), were conquered by the BaRotse 
(apparently allied to the Congo Bantu), who founded 
the so-called BaRotse empire on the middle Zambezi. 
In 1822 the fierce MaNtati horde (a branch of the 
BaTlokua) spread devastation, followed in 1823 by 
the tempestuous movement of the allied MaKololo 
towards the Zambezi. Having conquered the 
BaHurutse (the dominant BeChuana tribe) and 
others, they settled in the fertile uplands beyond 
the Zambezi about 1835. They were driven thence 
by the MaTabili into the BaRotse country, the 
inhabitants of which subsequently revolted and 
exterminated them. 

3. The south-western group of Bantu tribes con- 
sists of the purely pastoral OvaHerero and the peace- 
ful agricultural OvaMpo to north of them. The 
OvaHerero reached their present home in German 
South- West Africa from the east about a century 
ago, and drove the Berg Damara south. They 
probably represent a branch of the cattle-keeping 
south-eastern Bantu, and seem to have advanced 
gradually along river beds, their final direction being 
due south from the Kunene. 

Relatively little is known about the migrations 


which have taken place within the vast area of the 
interior between the Zambezi and the Equator ; 
three points may be noted, however, in regard to 
recent movements. 

1. A mother-state with offshoots is met with; 
for example the Lunda kingdom, north-west of the 
BaRotse empire, has been the starting-point of 
various movements : the BaNgala and MaKosa 
have spread westwards, the BaKete and other 
tribes northwards (6, 64). 

2. In equatorial Africa there have been two lines 
of movement : certain Congo tribes have come 
southwards, for example the BaYanzi and the 
BuShongo (BaKuba), with whom were associated 
the BashiLele and the BaKongo, also the WaRegga 
and BaKumu further east between the Congo and 
the Great Lakes. Mr Torday traces the BuShongo 
now living between the Kasai and the Sankuru to 
a northern home on the Shari River near Lake Chad. 
On the other hand, there has been a northward 
movement on the part of such tribes as the BaPende, 
BaJok, BaLua, BaBunda and others. The BaLuba 
went north-west towards the middle Kasai, where 
they are known as BashiLange. A part of the 
BaLuba went south from their home on the Lualaba 
and then east to Kazembe on the Luapula (18, 857 ff.). 
The BaTetela of the Lomani a?e pressing on the 
tribes to the west. 



3. From Guinea to the Kunene there has been a 
coastward movement, seen in the case of the BaNaka, 
Fan, BaKalai, and others. The same tendency is 
manifest in the great Jagga (Imbangala, according 
to Torday) migration of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries (6, 75). 

As regards earlier migrations, tradition points to 
successive waves of people advancing from north- 
east Africa to Angola by various routes : they would 
collect about different centres, which became the 
starting-point of fresh movements, as seen above in 
respect to the Lunda kingdom. One early advance 
from east to west of which some details are known 
is that of the Jagga, a warlike people whom 
Barthel regards as akin to the MaSimba. Their 
starting-point in 1490-1 was about the headwaters 
of the Congo, whence they streamed westward, 
temporarily checked with the help of the Portuguese 
but causing an upheaval in the heart of Africa, in 
which Lunda was involved, and subduing part of 
Angola. About the middle of the sixteenth century 
they were defeated, and the remainder eventually 
settled near the upper Kwango. They were long the 
terror of the country at the Congo mouth, and in 
1590-1600 raided into Benguela. 

The eastern side of the continent, as we have seen, 
has been a great highway of migration from the 
north since early times. The MaSimba outbreak 


of the sixteenth century has many parallels in later 
history. The MaSimba appeared on the lower 
Zambezi in 1540, and a long struggle ensued with 
the MaKalanga helped by the Portuguese, the 
MaSimba triumphing over both. They pushed 
north towards the rich towns of the coast, captured 
Quiloa and Mombasa, but were defeated before 
Malindi ; subsequently they disappeared from 

The colonisation of south Africa by Europeans 
caused a reflex movement of native tribes north- 
wards, while Hamitic incursions from the north were 
disintegrating the Bantu districts of east Africa. 
Thus contemporaneously we find the Zulu movement 
in the south and the Masai advance from the north. 
The MaSitu set out from the Landin country to 
south of the Zambezi ; they became entirely 
zuluised, and formed the northernmost outpost of 
the Kaffirs to north-west of Nyassa, whence they 
raided southwards between Nyassa and Bangweolo 
in the sixties. In 1850 one branch, the WaTuta 
or ANgoni, moved northward and then north-west- 
ward to Ujiji in 1858, then northward again to 
Urundi and as far as the southern shore of Victoria 
Nyanza. After a short stay, they moved south to 
Usukuma about 1860, and were finally conquered by 
the zuluised WaNyamwesi under Mirambo, and 
given land in the north- west of their country. The 


WaHehe, also known as the MaFiti, are a branch 
of the MaSitu ; they raided through Ugogo and 
Usagara to the coast until the Germans intervened. 

Early in the Christian era there was an influx of 
pastoral Hamitic peoples into the eastern Horn of 
Africa, the first to arrive being the Galla (Oromo), 
who occupied the southern edge of the Gulf of Aden 
in pre-Islamitic times. The Galla pushed into the 
Abyssinian highlands, while the Somal in their rear 
spread southwards from the Gulf of Aden. The 
Danakil (or Afar) probably crossed the Strait of 
Bab-el-mandeb later and spread thence into their 
present home between the Abyssinian mountains 
and the Red Sea. The Somal have steadily spread 
west and south to more fertile country, causing Galla 
tribes to retreat down the coast and then, when 
checked by the Masai in the south, along the valley 
of the Juba and up its tributaries towards the north- 
west. The campaigns of Muhammad Granj in the 
early sixteenth century profoundly affected the 
stratification of peoples in this part of Africa, re- 
sulting in the intermingling of Hamitic elements 
with the Semites, Negroes, and Bantu, whence arose 
the Masai, BaHima, and other tribes in the Nile lakes 
area (14, i. 20). Remnants of conquered peoples in 
several instances survive as pariah tribes. 

The Masai, representing a fusion of Hamites with 
Nilotic Negroes, are an aggressive pastoral tribe with 


a military organisation hardly surpassed by that of 
the Zulus. From the region north-east of Victoria 
Nyanza they have spread south, driving out the 
agricultural peoples. Their great inducement has 
been cattle-raiding. Parts of Usagara, German East 
Africa, have been devastated by both Masai from 
the north and MaFiti from the south. Since 1891 the 
rinderpest, together with the influence of the white 
man, have reduced the wealth and power of the 
pastoral peoples, giving the agriculturists a chance of 

In the neighbourhood of Victoria Nyanza the pas- 
toral BaHima, of Hamitic probably Galla descent, 
dominated the indigenous Bantu and intermingled 
with them between the fourteenth and sixteenth 
centuries (to judge from the genealogy of the kings 
of Uganda). Their centre of dispersion was Unyoro, 
east of Albert Nyanza (4, 449), and they spread 
over Uganda and Karagwe to Urundi, where they 
were called WaTusi. They have scattered across 
Unyanyembe as far as the western edge of Ugogo. 

The obscure ethnological history of Madagascar is 
succinctly dealt with by Mr T. A. Joyce in an in- 
valuable handbook (22, 245). The aborigines were 
negroid ; some authorities believe that these were 
Oceanic negroids (Melanesians) and not African 
Negroes, though numbers of Bantu slaves have been 
brought over by Arabs. From Pre-Muslim times 


various groups of Arabs have arrived and imposed 
themselves on the population. The southern end of 
the island has been affected by Indian immigration. 
The Antimerina (" Hova ") migrated from the East 
Indian Archipelago, and landed on the east coast 
about four centuries ago, and became dominant in 
the seventeenth century. 

On taking a general survey of the racial history 
of Africa it is manifest that the critical area is 
the north-eastern region, which abuts on southern 
Arabia. It was here that most of the peoples must 
have entered Africa, the remainder coming across the 
northern boundary of the Red Sea. As all the later 
immigrants were pastoral peoples, the desert band 
to the north of the southern route, threaded only 
by the narrow and densely populated Nile valley, 
prevented extensive movement northwards. The 
forests of the basin of the Congo, and its affluents 
arrested all migrations of pastoral peoples as such ; 
two routes alone lay open : one to the west in the 
open country between the desert and the forest, the 
other southwards down the eastern mountain zone. 
The latter has been the track of the Bushmen, 
Hottentots and southern Bantu-speaking peoples, 
and quite recently the Masai, were following the 
same route when their progress was arrested by the 
coming of the white man. There has also been a 
steady pressure of peoples of Libyan and Berber 


extraction southwards across the Sahara tending to 
drive the Negro ever farther south into the forest 
region. The higher elements in the population of 
the western Sudan may thus be traced to influences 
from the north and east. 

1. PREVILLE, A. DE. Les Societes Africaines, 1894. 

2. ROSCOE, J. Journ. Roy. Anth. Inst., xxxvii., 1907, p. 93. 

3. STUHLMANN, F. VON. Handwerk und Industrie in Ostafrika, 


4. SCHFRTZ, H. The World's History (ed. Helmolt), vol. iii., 

1903, p. 395. 

5. HADDON, A. C. Rep. Brit. Ass. (8. Africa), 1905, p. 511. 

6. BABTHEL, K. Volkerbewegungen auf der Siidkalfte dea 

afrikanischen Kontinents, Mitt, des Vereins 
/. Erdkunde in Leipzig, 1893. 

7. SMITH, G. ELLIOT. Cairo Sci. Journ., iii., 1909. 

8. SMITH, G. ELLIOT, AND JONES, F. WOOD. Arch. Surv. Nubia. 

Rep. for 1907-8, ii., 1910. 

9. OETTEKING, B. Arch. f. Anth., xxxvi., 1909. 

10. SERGI, G. The Mediterranean Race, 1910. 

11. KEANE, A. H. Ethnology, 1896, p. 374. Man Past and Present, 

1899, p. 450. 

12. NIEBUHR, C. The World's History (ed. Helmolt), vol. iii., 1903, 

p. 587. 

13. KEANE, A. H. Journ. Anth. Inst., xiv., 1884. 

14. PAULITSCHKE, P. Ethnographie Nordost-Afrikas, i., 1893. 

15. BREASTED, J. H. A History of the Ancient Egyptians, 1908. 

16. STOW, G. W. The Native Races of South Africa, 1905. 

17. THEAL, G. M'C. History and Ethnography of Africa south of 

the Zambesi (1505-1795), 3 vols., 1907-1910. 

18. TORDAY, E. Bull. Soc. beige d'Etudes coloniales (Brussels), 

No. 12, 1910, p. 857 ; and 


TOEDAY, E., AND JOYCE, T. A. " Les Bushongo," Annales du 
Musee du Congo Edge, Se"r. III., Tome ii., 
Fasic. i., 1911. 

19. JOHNSTON, SIB H. Liberia, 2 vols., 1906. 

20. ELLIS, A. B. The Yoruba-spealcing Peoples, 1894. 

21. CHAD WICK, H. M. The Heroic Age, 1911. 

22. Handbook to the Ethnological Collections, British Museum, 1910. 

23. SMITH, G. ELLIOT. The Ancient Egyptians, 1911. 



THE absence of anthropoid apes from America, at 
any period of the world's history, clearly precludes 
the possibility of man's having originated independ- 
ently in the New World. Even if the anthropoids 
be collateral descendants with man of a remote 
common ancestor, still their absence would presup- 
pose the absence also of that common ancestor. The 
population of America must therefore have come 
from the Old World. Only two probable routes 
exist, for we may exclude in human times any land- 
bridge across the mid- Atlantic, and, similarly, there 
is no reason to believe that the connection of South 
America with the Antarctic continent persisted dur- 
ing human times. We are therefore compelled to look 
to a farther extension of land between North America 
and northern Europe on the one hand, and between 
north-west America and north-east Asia on the 
other. We know that in late Tertiary times there 
was a land-bridge connecting north-west Europe 
with Greenland, and Dr Scharff (1, 155) believes 
that the Barren-ground reindeer took this route to 
Norway and western Europe during early glacial 



times, but that " towards the latter part of the 
Glacial period the land-connection . . . broke down " 
(I.e. 186). Other authorities are of opinion that the 
continuous land between the two continents in 
higher latitudes remained until post-glacial times. 
Dr Brinton (8) considered that it was impossible 
for man to have reached America from Asia, because 
Siberia was covered with glaciers and not peopled 
until late Neolithic times, whereas man was living 
in both North and South America at the close of the 
Glacial age. He acknowledged frequent communica- 
tions in later times between Asia and America, but 
maintained that the movement was rather from 
America to Asia than otherwise. He was therefore 
a strong advocate of the European origin of the 
American race. 

Others again see evidence in certain cultural and 
linguistic affinities of Polynesian migrations into 
America ; but the Polynesians do not appear to have 
reached eastern Oceania till towards the close of the 
seventh century A.D. 

Only a narrow strait now separates Alaska from 
Siberia, and the Aleutian Islands form an almost 
complete series of stepping-stones across the most 
northerly part of the Pacific. There is no doubt that 
North America was connected with Asia in Tertiary 
times in this direction, but some geologists assert 
that " the far North-west did not rise from the waves 


of the Pacific Ocean (which once flowed with a 
boundless expanse to the North Pole) until after the 
glacial period/' In that case " the first inhabitants 
of America certainly did not get there in this way, 
for by that time the bones of many generations were 
already bleaching on the soil of the New World " 
(2, 181). 

The " Miocene Bridge " as the land connecting 
Asia and America in late geological times has been 
called (4, ii. 61, 344), was probably very wide ; one 
side would stretch from Kamtchatka to British 
Columbia and the other across Behring Strait. If, 
as seems probable, this connection persisted till, or 
was reconstituted during, the human period, tribes 
migrating to America by the more northerly route 
would enter the land east of the great barrier of the 
Rocky Mountains. The route from the Old World 
to the New by the Pacific margin probably remained 
nearly always open. 

As in Europe, the northern part of the continent 
was at one time covered by a great glacial sheet 
rendering it uninhabitable. This Glacial period 
belongs to very recent geological times. The ice- 
sheet spread over practically all Canada, and over 
New England and New York as far as the Ohio River, 
and westwards over the prairies and part of the great 
plains. The chain of great lakes and the lakes and 
watercourses of central and eastern Canada mark 


the ragged track of its boundary (3, 15). It is 
obvious that during the period of the great extension 
of the ice-sheet no immigration could take place into 
America, except possibly, as already mentioned, 
from north-east Asia to the Pacific slope of North 
America along the southern border of the North 
Pacific Bridge. 

Ethnologists are generally agreed as to the 
similarity of type prevailing among most of the 
peoples of the New World, which points to an 
original common parentage. For instance the 
coarse, lank, black hair is a prevailing character- 
istic throughout both the northern and the southern 
continent, and in other respects a resemblance to 
the Mongoloid type is equally widespread. Thus it 
is to Asia rather than to Europe that we must look 
for the first ancestors of the American Indians, 
though it would not be correct to regard them as a 
branch of the Mongol race. The number of languages 
in America is very remarkable, but recent investiga- 
tions show that there is a closer affinity between 
some of them than has been hitherto supposed, in- 
deed one writer goes so far as to say that language 
in America " is the unmistakable voice of a race, 
echoed through a thousand vernacular dialects " 
(4, ii. 75). The racial problem is not so simple, how- 
ever, as this would imply, and Deniker (5, 509) and 
Keane (6, 353) are probably correct in suggesting 


that there have been several migrations at various 
periods from the Old World ; they further agree in 
postulating migrations from Europe as well as from 

There are indications of a palseo-ethnic and a neo- 
ethnic period in the New World as well as in the Old ; 
the interval dividing them may correspond to that 
dividing pre- or inter-glacial from post-glacial times. 
It seems likely that certain peoples of low stature, 
occurring here and there in America, represent the 
first palaeo-ethnic inhabitants of America. 

Traces of palaeo-ethnic man have been met with 
in various parts of South America and perhaps in the 
south of California if ten Kate be correct (21). This 
high and narrow-headed race of the Lagoa-Santa 
type represents the primordial element of population 
in South America. Looking at the present distribu- 
tion of the descendants of this Lagoa-Santa race, we 
find them all border peoples ; they are to be met with 
in eastern Brazil, in the south of Patagonia and 
Tier r a del Fuego where the climate is rigorous, in 
the islands of western and southern Chile, on the 
Ecuador coast, and apparently in south California. 
Their distribution seems to indicate that they have 
been driven out in a great excentric movement from 
their old habitat, and, with new environment and 
crossing, fresh variations of the type have arisen. 
This type is absent throughout the northern part of 


South America, and there is a great gap in its 
occurrence (except as a fossil or sub-fossil) from 
southern Brazil to Patagonia (7). Keane (6, 353) 
suggests that the long-headed peoples, like the 
Eskimo and Botocudo, are descendants of the long- 
headed Palaeolithic man of Europe, while the broad- 
headed Mexicans and Andeans have sprung from a 
later and probably much larger section migrating 
from eastern Asia. 

There is nothing to show how the Lagoa-Santa 
race reached South America. No traces of it have 
been recorded east of the Rocky Mountains, but the 
negative evidence of the absence of fossil remains 
has no especial weight, and the later survivors may 
have been exterminated or assimilated by the 
ancestors of the existing natives of North America. 
So there is no real reason why this race should not 
have crossed from Europe by the North Atlantic 
Bridge if the way were open. Or it may have come 
from north Asia and kept to the Pacific slope, while 
working its way to South America. 

The Eskimo will be dealt with later. The in- 
habitants of the plains east of the Rocky Mountains 
and the eastern wooded area are characterised by a 
head which varies about the lower limit of brachy- 
cephaly, and by tall stature. This stock probably 
arrived by the North Pacific Bridge before the last 
Glacial period, and extended over the continent east 


of the great divide. Finally bands from the north, 
east, and south migrated into the prairie area. The 
markedly brachycephalic immigrants from Asia 
appear to have mainly proceeded down the Pacific 
slope and to have populated Central and South 
America, with an overflow into the south of North 
America. It is probable that there were several 
migrations of allied but not similar broad-headed 
peoples from Asia in early days, and we know that 
recently there have been racial and cultural drifts 
between the neighbouring portions of America and 
Asia. Indeed Bogoras suggests that ethnographi- 
cally the line separating Asia and America should 
lie from the lower Kolyma River to Gishiga Bay 
(9, 579). 

[For Bibliography see p. 95.] 



NORTH AMERICA has the outline of a vast triangle, 
the base of which extends beyond the Arctic circle, 
and the apex into the tropics. The land mass 
possesses a climate which is essentially temperate, 
but marked by those extremes which characterise a 
continental area. The low-lying central region of 
the north passes into the tundra of the frozen north, 
and no obstacles deflect the icy north winds. The 
most striking relief feature is the Cordillera, an 
immense mountain-chain which stretches from 
Alaska to the south. In reality, it is a great plateau 
with a breadth of one thousand miles in the United 
States, and with an elevation of from five to ten 
thousand feet. Upon this table-land rise various 
mountain-ranges running longitudinally north and 
south, mainly along its margins, the central plateau 
being arid and frequently desert. Eastward from the 
Cordillera stretches the great central basin bounded 
on the east by the Appalachian or eastern mountain 
system. The wooded Appalachians present many 
breaks and groups. In the north the great central 
basin is cold and barren ; between latitudes fifty 



and sixty degrees, it is covered for the most part with 
forests ; while from fifty degrees southward stretch 
on the west the dry and treeless great plains, and on 
the east the more fertile plains ; southwards the 
great plains disappear in the richness of vegetation 
brought about by the increased rainfall of Mexico 
and Central America (3, 1-22). The great plains are 
rolling in character, and are intersected by river 
valleys, which are generally thinly wooded. The 
plains are drained by the Mississippi and its innumer- 
able affluents. The chain of great lakes forms a 
noticeable feature of the northern wooded area, and 
the northern tundras are dotted with lakes of varied 
size. The Pacific slope has a genial insular climate 
which marks it off sharply from the rest of the 

These physical conditions combined with the 
absence of contact with great cultural centres have 
directly affected the economic life of the people. 
The Arctic peoples could live only by fishing and 
hunting. Farther south collecting of wild vegetable 
produce gave increased variety in food, but except 
on the north-west coast fishing was not practised to 
any great extent. Horticulture seems to have spread 
along the great plains and up the eastern wooded area, 
mainly, if not entirely from the south ; but it was 
never practised along the Pacific slope, and the 
Calif ornian Indians as a whole remained in a very 


low state of culture. The marvellous salmon rivers 
and the drowned valleys of the north-west pre- 
disposed the peoples of this highly favoured area to 
fishing, and various circumstances combined to 
encourage the development of a special type of 
culture. Under very different circumstances a 
peculiar culture was also evolved by the Pueblo 
Indians of Arizona and New Mexico, but here a 
cultural drift from Mexico may be suspected. 

If man lived in North America during pre- or inter- 
glacial times, the earlier inhabitants must have been 
pressed southwards to more genial climes by the 
great ice sheet. At the close of the glacial period a 
movement northwards would begin, the impulse of 
which would be felt from Mexico to the Atlantic. 
The relative position of the main stocks from west to 
east according to Winchell (10, 207) would then be 
approximately as follows : Athapascan, Shoshonean, 
Algonquian, Caddoan, Muskhogean, Siouan, and 
Iroquoian. Farrand, however, in common with 
most American anthropologists considers that 
" glacial man is doubtful " (3, 72). 

The Eskimo, or Innuit, occupy more than five 
thousand miles of sea-board, from north-east 
Greenland to the mouth of the Copper River in 
western Alaska. Many views have been advanced 
as to the position of their centre of dispersion ; 


most probably it lay to the west of Hudson Bay. 
Rink is of opinion (11, 3, 32), that they originated 
as a distinct people in Alaska where they developed 
an Arctic culture ; but Boas regards them " as, 
comparatively speaking, new arrivals in Alaska, 
which they reached from the east " (22, 534), 
A westward movement is supported by myths 
and customs, and by the affinities of the Eskimo 
with northern Asiatics. There was always hostility 
between the Eskimo and the North American 
Indians, which, apart from their very specialised mode 
of life, precluded any Eskimo extension southwards. 
The expansion of the Eskimo to Greenland is 
explained by Steensby (13, 392) as follows : the 
southern main movement would have followed the 
west coast from Melville Bay, rounded the southern 
point and proceeded some distance up the west coast. 
From the Barren Grounds north-west of Hudson 
Bay the Polar Eskimo followed the musk-ox due 
north to Ellesmere Land, then crossed to Greenland, 
and, still hunting the musk-ox, advanced along 
the north coast and down the east coast towards 
Scoresby Sound. Another line of migration 
apparently started from the vicinity of Southampton 
Island and pursued the reindeer northwards into 
Baffin Land ; on reaching Ponds Inlet these reindeer- 
hunting Eskimo for the most part turned along the 
east coast. 


The Athapascans occupied a wide area in the 
north-west extending from the Rockies almost to 
Hudson Bay, and also a smaller though far more 
densely populated territory in the south-west in 
the states of Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. 
In later times the trend of migration has been 
from north to south ; in Washington, Oregon and 
California, small detachments spread westwards to 
the Pacific coast, but there is no evidence of any 
expansion eastwards. The northern Athapascans 
call themselves Dene, the southern representatives 
of the stock are the Navaho, Apache, with the 
Hupa of California. 

The Shoshonean centre of dispersion lies west of 
the Rocky Mountains, but these tribes probably did 
not migrate far. Some Shoshonean tribes formerly 
east of the Rockies, were pushed south and west by 
the Blackfeet, and probably they in turn pressed on 
the Shahaptians of the Columbia valley. The 
Shahaptians in their movement north and west 
forced back the Salish on to the northern bank 
and tributaries of the Columbia. Later the Shahap- 
tians obtained horses and drove back the Snakes 
(Shoshonean) from the Columbia River. 

According to Winchell, who believes that man 
was pre- or inter-glacial in America (10, 213), the 
Algonquian stock originated in the south-west, and 
after the retreat of the ice " spread over the interior 


plains, and pre-empted the timbered regions of Canada 
and the northern United States," eventually ex- 
tending over the breadth of the continent from 
Montana and Alberta to the Atlantic, and at one 
time holding most of Canada. In 1000 A.D. they 
were on the Atlantic coast, for Vikings encountered 
them (Micmacs) in Vinland, east Nova Scotia (12, 72). 
Their traditions point to an original home in the 
north-east, beyond the Great Lakes, whence they 
had been driven by the Iroquois before the Discovery. 
They migrated along two lines, one going south-east, 
along the coast, and up the rivers into the AUeghanies, 
the other west along the Great Lakes. They were 
orginally food-collectors, but some of the western 
tribes learnt agriculture from Mississippi tribes 
(22, 532). The two branches differentiated during 
centuries, and it is only by their kindred language, 
that the relationship of the Shawnee of the south 
and the Ojibwa of the north is unmistakably shown. 
The south-east branch of Algonquians, having crossed 
the Savannah River, encountered strange Indians 
who checked their further progress in that direction ; 
they therefore turned west and spread into 
Tennessee where they were called Savannee or 

The Ojibwa (Chippewa) have a tradition that they 
dwelt on the Atlantic coast north of the St Lawrence 
about five hundred years ago. They moved thence, 


stopping on the St Lawrence, Lake Huron, and at 
Sault Ste. Marie, then finally at La Pointe, Wisconsin. 
Possibly they were driven west by the Iroquois con- 
federacy, but they are mainly an aggressive people. 
They split into three divisions. South of Lake 
Superior they encountered the Foxes (another 
Algonquian tribe) and Dakota with whom they fought 
for the possession of the wild-rice district. After 
some hundred and twenty years they drove out 
the Foxes and Dakota, and spread south and west. 
Early in the seventeenth century they traded furs 
with the French for guns, with the aid of which 
they drove the Foxes to the Mississippi in 1746. 
The great incentive for the immigration of these and 
other tribes into north Wisconsin and east Minnesota 
was the possession of the wild-rice marshes ; possibly 
the Foxes and Dakota offered a less stubborn 
resistance because the plains afforded the counter- 
attraction of bison-hunting. After 1783 the Ojibwa 
spread over the rest of north Wisconsin and Minnesota 
(14, 1038 ff.). 

The Cree are an important Algonquian tribe living 
in Manitoba and Assiniboia, between the Red and 
Saskatchewan rivers ; they formerly ranged far to 
the north, and to the south of Hudson Bay. Like 
the kindled Ojibwa they were essentially a forest 
people. There is a tradition that part of the tribe 
lived about the Red River (Minnesota) with the 


Ojibwa, but were attracted to the plains by the 

The traditions of the Lenni-Lenape, another 
Algonquian tribe, state that they came from the 
north, doubtless west of Lake Superior, " where it 
was cold and froze and stormed, to possess milder 
lands abounding in game." Fighting their way, 
they sojourned in the land of firs, and later arrived 
on the plains of the buffalo land. Then they 
" longed for the rich east-land " and their passage 
across the Mississippi in south Minnesota was con- 
tested by the Tallegewi (Tsalagi or Cherokee) ; 
these were a tall people who had many large towns 
and fortifications ; they were probably the effigy- 
builders of the Wisconsin-Minnesota-Iowa region of 
the old mound-builders. Those who crossed the 
river, being assisted by the Mengwe (an Iroquoian 
tribe, Hurons ?), eventually expelled the Tallegewi, 
who fled down the Mississippi. Most of the Lenape 
remained in the Mississippi valley, but some finally 
settled in the eastern states, part of whom were 
known as Delaware (10, 217). 

The Cheyenne still lived in north Minnesota in 
1700. They were driven west by the Sioux, who 
were themselves retiring before the Ojibwa, then 
already in possession of guns from the east. In 
1850 they divided into a northern band which re- 
mained in Montana, and a southern band which 


wandered towards Colorado, Kansas and Oklahoma. 
Originally an agricultural people, they afterwards 
became typical nomad Plains Indians. 

The Blackfeet, or Siksika, till recently ranged from 
the north Saskatchewan River to the Yellowstone 
River in Montana, and from the Rocky Mountains to 
105 W. long. According to GrinneU (15, 177) they 
moved from the wooded lake area of Athabasca in 
the north to the open country to the south, but 
Horatio Hale believes they came from the Red River 
country ; in any case " the westward movement of 
the Blackfeet has probably been due to the pressure 
of the Crees upon them. . . . They have gradually 
advanced westward to the inviting plains along the 
Red River and the Saskatchewan, pushing the prior 
occupants before them by the sheer force of numbers. 
This will explain the deadly hostility which has 
always existed between the Crees and the Blackfeet " 
(16, 700). It is probable that the people whom they 
found in possession of the prairie had come through 
the passes from the country west of the Rocky 
Mountains, which would account " not only for the 
peculiarities of the language and character of the 
Blackfeet tribes, but also for the different traditions 
which are found among them in regard to their 
origin and former abode " (16 S 704). This migration 
apparently took place a little over a hundred years 


The Caddoan tribes came northwards from the 
south-west ; the Caddo long lived on the Red River 
of Louisiana, other branches settled along the rivers 
of north-east Texas, while the Pawnee migrated to 
Kansas and Nebraska. The Pawnee practised 
agriculture more than the other Plains Indians, 
which is additional evidence of their southern origin, 
for, judging from the distribution of maize and 
tobacco, agriculture is admitted to have proceeded 
northwards from Mexico and Central America. 

The Indians who checked the Algonquian advance 
south, were presumably Muskhogeans whose best 
known representatives were the Creeks and Chicka- 
saw. They were apparently a people little addicted 
to migration ; their territory along the rivers flowing 
into the Gulf of Mexico parallel to the Mississippi, 
probably represents their ancient home ; in early 
times it undoubtedly extended farther north, and 
possibly farther east. Not only did the cultural 
influence of the Arawak extend to Florida from the 
Antilles, but there were colonists from Cuba who had 
come in search of the mythic fountain of youth. 

The prehistoric Siouan people were neighbours in 
the Carolinas of the prehistoric Iroquoians, and the 
two people, more or less allied in language, and 
having similar customs and the same opportunities 
for northward migration, probably moved about the 
same time (10, 214). The Siouans coming down 


Big Sandy River reached the Ohio at a point lying on 
the south-west border of the territory over which the 
Cherokee expanded. Geographical names confirm 
the tradition that they settled for some time in the 
Ohio valley. By the time of the Discovery of 
America they had extended beyond the Mississippi 
(2, 211). 

The course of the later migrations of the Sioux- 
Dakota can be definitely established ; they came 
down the Ohio, being driven west by the Algon- 
quians. The stream of retreating Sioux divided 
into two branches, one going up the Mississippi and 
the other spreading downstream. The former, 
consisting of Dakota and others, seems to have 
encountered a kindred tribe, the Winnebago, in 
Minnesota and Wisconsin, who were possibly the 
representatives of an earlier occupation of this area 
by the Siouans ; at all events the Winnebago dialect 
is one of the oldest of the Siouan stock in the Missis- 
sippi region, and this tribe is called " grandfathers " 
by the rest. The Sioux fugitives occupied the wild- 
rice fields of Minnesota and Wisconsin for a time 
until the Ojibwa penetrated thither and disputed 
possession with them. The Dakota then took to 
the plains and became typical bison-hunting Plains 
Indians. This development was greatly assisted by 
their acquisition of the horse (14, 1044) : it was in 
the winter of 1802-3 that the Dakota first saw 


and stole horses wearing shoes. The Winnebago 
were to such a degree attached to the soil that they 
remained between the Mississippi and Green Bay, 
Lake Michigan, living at peace with the surrounding 

The Assiniboin or " Stone Sioux " of the Dakota 
group, had separated from the Sioux probably in the 
Lake of the Woods region by 1 640. In 1 658 they were 
between Lake Superior and Hudson Bay, whence 
they moved north-west ; in 1670 they were living near 
Winnipeg. They joined the Cree and fought against 
other Dakota tribes. Finally they moved westward, 
on to the plains and became nomadic (12, 81). 

As to the original home of the Iroquoians nothing 
is definitely known beyond the fact that they crossed 
a great river to reach those north-eastern States 
which they occupied at the Discovery (17, 146). 
The facts that the " three supporters," beans, maize 
and squashes, figure in their mythology and that 
they made use of the blow-gun, as well as linguistic 
evidence (22, 531), point to their having come 
from a southern home, though their traditions 
refer only to their later northern home which they 
left and crossed the St Lawrence. In historic times 
they occupied the eastern lake region and the country 
south and east. The Cherokee represent the first 
southward wave of Iroquoian migration ; they 
reached the Ohio driving out the Algonquians already 


settled there, and occupied this region for a con- 
siderable time. 

Another detachment of Iroquoians, the Huron, 
moved west, probably before the main Iroquoian 
migration ; these Huron became absolutely alienated 
from the parent stock, and bitter enmity subse- 
quently prevailed between the two. North of Lake 
Erie were the mound-building Attiwandaron, who 
probably represent the vanguard of the Huron 
westward migration. The Iroquoians were an 
aggressive people, and drove the Huron farther 
west, in the end practically exterminating them, 
and the Attiwandaron in 1650. Subsequently the 
Ojibwa gradually took possession of the peninsula of 
Ontario after a struggle with the Iroquois. When 
Ontario became British all the Indians within its 
area were Algonquians. It was pressure from the 
Iroquois which caused the migration of the Sioux- 
Dakota to the plains, which took place within 
historic times. 

The Iroquoians were physically the finest of all 
the Indians, and excelled in warlike qualities. They 
owe their fame chiefly to their great military organisa- 
tion of the League of the Five Nations (the Mohawk, 
Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga and Seneca), which was 
joined in 1722 by a sixth, the Tuscarora from the 
south. The League was definitely constituted about 
the year 1570 to secure universal peace and welfare 


among men by the recognition and enforcement of 
the forms of civil government. 

The movements of the Indians, especially of those 
nearer the coast, were largely affected by the in- 
coming of the French and English after the Dis- 
covery, and their distribution was also modified by 
the warfare between these two peoples. At the 
present day the Indians are all located in reservations 
which frequently coincide to some extent with the 
original habitat of the several tribes. 

As previously indicated, the ethnical history of the 
Pacific slope is entirely different from that of the rest 
of North America, owing to its geographical and 
climatic conditions. The population has been essen- 
tially a static one, as is demonstrated by the great 
diversity of languages, although some tribes have 
percolated across the great divide, while inland 
tribes have come down to the coast. Only a few 
examples need be given. 

The Salish tribes of the coast probably came from 
the interior ; the Tillamook apparently crossed over 
the territory of the Chinook to get to their position 
on the Oregon coast south of the Columbia River. 

The Kutenai Indians of British Columbia, judging 
from tradition, are comparatively modern intruders 
in the area now occupied by them, which extends 
from about 50 N. lat. to northern Idaho and 
Montana. Their earlier home seems to have been 


Alberta about the headwaters of the Saskatchewan 
(18, 179). 

The Dieguenos of southern California have 
migrated there from the southernmost part of 
Nevada, as is proved by the parallels between their 
myths with those of the Mohave (19). 

There is unquestionable resemblance between 
the Pueblo Indians and their northern neighbours ; 
in fact, the whole population from Alaska nearly to 
the Isthmus belongs to one great family, which must 
have split up very early judging from linguistic 
dissimilarity. The separate hall for religious 
ceremonies, the kiva of the Pueblo Indian, is met 
with in California as well, so too are the religious 
mask dances. The antiquities of the Pueblo region 
afford evidence of a progressive movement from 
north to south with some degree of cultural develop- 
ment, seen especially in the transition from the cliff- 
dwellings of the central plateau to the pueblos of 
the Zuni and Hopi, built on rocky, almost inacces- 
sible hills. The migrations of the Pueblo Indians were 
of necessity slow as they lived almost exclusively 
by agriculture. 

The great Pueblo area between the Rio Pecos and 
the Colorado never formed a political whole. Petty 
feuds between rival communities and the struggle 
with drought were the undoing of the Pueblo Indians. 
We know that the Zuni culture is due to a fusion of 


two racial elements ; the first from the north and 
north-east, the second, which it shares with other 
little Colorado pueblos, came from the Gila valley in 
southern Arizona (20, 82). A factor to be reckoned 
with in considering the movements of people in this 
region is the increasing dryness of the climate. 
Hostile tribes pushed the Pueblo Indians farther and 
farther into the arid steppe-lands, where a special 
form of fortified village, the pueblo, originated by 
way of defence against enemies to north and east. 
The fierce Apaches and Navaho made marauding 
expeditions to pillage the garnered crops of the 
Pueblo Indians ; the Spaniards found this warfare 
in full swing, and it must have been going on for 
generations (2, 213-222). 

1. SCHARFF, R. F. The History of the European Fauna, 1899. 

2. HAEBLER, K. The World's History (ed. Helmolt), I., 1901, 

p. 180. 

3. FARRAND, L. Basis of American History, 1904. 

4. PAYNE, E. J. History of the New World called America, L, 

1892; ii., 1899. 

5. DENIKER, J. The Races of Man, 1900. 

6. KEANE, A. H. Man Past and Present, 1899. 

7. RIVET, P. Bull et M&n. Soc. d'Anth. (Paris), ix., 1908. 

8. BRINTON, D. G. The American Race, 1891. 

9. BOGORAS, W. Am. Anth., iv., 1902, p. 577. 

10. WINCHELL, N. H. Pop. Sci. Monthly, Ixiii., Sept. 1908. 

11. RINK, H. "The Eskimo Tribes, their Distribution and 

Characteristics," Meddelelser om Gronland, 
Hefte 11, 1887. 


12. THOMAS, CYEUS. Arch. Rep. (1905), Toronto, 1906, p. 71. 

13. STEENSBY, H. P. Meddddser om Gronland, xxxiv. 255, 1910. 

14. JENKS, A. E. IQth Ann. Rep. Bur. Am. Eth. (1897-8), 1900, 

p. 1011. 

15. GRINNELL, G. B., Blackfoot Lodge Tales, 1892. 

16. HALE, H. Rep. Brit. Ass., 1885 (Aberdeen), p. 696. 

17. BOYLE, D. Arch. Rep. (1905), Toronto, 1906, p. 146. 

18. CHAMBERLAIN, A. F. Arch. Rep. (1905), Toronto, 1906, p. 178. 

19. Du Bois, C. G. XV* Congres international des Amdricanistes, 

no. 28. 

20. FEWKES, J. W. Putnam Anniversary Volume, 1909, p. 41. 

21. KATE, H. TEN. Bull. Soc. d'anth. de Paris, vii., ser. 3, 1884, 

p. 551 ff. 

22. BOAS, F. Journ. R. Anth. Inst., xl., 1911, p. 529. 
KROEBER, A. L. " The Languages of the American Indians," 

Pop. Sci. Monthly, Ixxviii., May 1911, 
p. 500. (This paper has appeared since 
the above was in print.) 



THE great Cordillera of the west runs south-east 
from the United States, forming several almost 
parallel ranges of sierra in its course through the 
Pacific States of Mexico, and converging again into 
a single range as the northern continent narrows 
down into the Isthmus of Panama. On comparing 
a relief map with one showing the distribution of 
nations after 1300 A.D. (1, 297), it will be seen how 
precisely the line of advance of the Mexicano 
(Aztec) was determined by the configuration of the 

In very early times the Maya of Guatemala and 
Yucatan attained some degree of culture, and in the 
seventh century constructed the marvellous carved 
monuments of Guatemala. They occupied the Gulf 
countries, extending northwards through the present 
state of Vera Cruz into Tamaulipas, where the 
natives (Huasteka) are known to be closely akin to 
the present Maya. From the lowlands they spread 
westwards on to the plateau at least as far as the 
valley of Mexico, and it was they who erected the 
pyramid of Cholula surmounted by the temple of 

G 97 


Quetzalcoatl, their chief deity, and other monuments. 
They were the inventors of the system of picture- 
writing and of the tonalamatl almanac, which bears 
unmistakable signs of its origin among a tropical 
lowland people, for tropical animals figure largely 
among the twenty day-signs. 

The neighbours of the Maya to the west were the 
Otomi, Tarasco, and the Misteca-Zapoteca family. 
These may not be akin to the Maya, and perhaps 
represent the pre-Mayan aborigines. Like the Maya, 
the Misteca-Zapoteca were capable of high civilisa- 
tion, as witnessed by the monuments of Mitla and 
Monte Alban in Oajaca (1, 314). 

The Maya flourished on the Mexican plateau from 
about 700 A.D., according to the " Anales de Quauh- 
titlan," until Nahoa tribes came along the Pacific 
coast from the north-west, and broke through be- 
tween the Tarasco and Misteca. These Nahoa are 
linguistically related to Shoshonean tribes of the 
present western and south-western States of North 
America, some of whom still live about the Sierra 
Madre of north-west Mexico. It has been suggested 
that they are akin to tribes now existing in British 
Columbia, especially the Tsimshian and Nootka 
(5, 356, 375). According to this theory they moved 
down between the Rocky Mountains and the coast, 
attracted ever farther south. Later, other tribes 
occupied the greater part of the Pacific slope, thus 


cutting the Nahoa off from their northern kinsfolk. 
On reaching Mexico they spread as far south as Oajaca, 
but never secured a foothold in this region. They 
extended in a broad belt across to the Atlantic 
coast, from Vera Cruz to Coatzacoalcos, which is 
still inhabited mainly by Nahoa who have overrun 
or driven out other nations. The Otomi and Tarasco 
remain to the north. In the valley by which they 
came and eastwards the Nahoa encountered the 
Maya, who were driven farther and farther east by 
successive waves of Nahoa tribes. Finally, a Nahoa- 
speaking people, the Aztec, more powerful than their 
predecessors, arrived about 1200 A.D., and some 
hundred years later founded Tenochtitlan, their 
lake-dwelling settlement, on the site of the present 
city of Mexico. In 1427 the Aztec formed a con- 
federacy, which, under the leadership of Montezuma, 
was destroyed by Cortez about a century afterwards. 
The Aztec first came into permanent contact with, 
a northern and less civilised branch of the Maya 
at Tollan (modern Tula), fifty miles north of 
Tenochtitlan, and called them Tolteca (" men of 
ToUan "), which name came to be applied to many 
elements of culture belonging to the more advanced 
Maya of Guatemala and Yucatan. Gadow (1, 213) 
maintains that " the Mexican Empire inherited their 
whole civilisation from the Toltecs, partly from those 
that remained behind, partly through contact by 


commerce." There were traditions that these 
Toltec withdrew east as far as Carnpeachy and 
Guatemala, hence the fable that their deity Quetzal- 
coatl, the feathered snake, disappeared into the sea, 
promising to return. The expelled Toltec then re- 
paired to the territory of the kindred Maya and 
occupied all the best available parts of the country. 

This is the view held by Forstemann (2, 540) and 
other authorities, but some are of opinion that the 
Toltec were a great and powerful nation, who, 
after the overthrow of their empire, migrated south, 
spreading their culture throughout Central America ; 
others, again, think that they were merely a clan 
of the Nahoa (3, 251 ; 4, 369). 

The loose application of the name Aztec to the 
whole of the civilisation encountered by the 
Spaniards on their arrival in Mexico has occasioned 
considerable confusion. The Aztec represent one 
tribe of the large Nahoa family, of which they became 
the military dominant stock not very long before the 
Spanish conquest. The name Azteca was subse- 
quently replaced by that of Mejica, and the term 
Mexicano came to include all the Nahoa-speaking 
stock, the Mexicano dialect as that of the ruling race 
having superseded the rest long before the arrival of 
the Spaniards. Tribes outside the Nahoa group 
have kept the separate names given them by the 
Mejica, and retained by the Spaniards. 


1. GADOW, H. Through Southern Mexico, 1908. 

2. FOBSTEMANN, E. Bur. Am. Eihn., Bull. 28, 1904, p. 53& 

3. HAEBLEB, K. The World's History (ed. Helmolt), L, 1901, p. 180. 

4. KEANE, A. H. Man Past and Present, 1899. 

5. PAYNE, E. J. History of the New World called America, ii, 1899. 



THE essential geographical features of South 
America are : (1) the great mountain system of the 
west, (2) the tropical forests of the river systems of 
the centre and east, (3) the vast plain of the south 
gradually changing hi character from the rich 
pasturage of the Chaco to pampas and then to the 
bare plateaus of Patagonia. 

The Cordilleras diminish in height towards the 
south. They are geologically speaking of recent 
age, and Markham suggests that at the time of the 
earlier civilisation they were " some two or three 
thousand feet lower than they are now" (1, 38), 
judging from the fact that mastodon bones have been 
discovered at a height of thirteen thousand feet in 
Bolivia and gigantic fossil anteaters in what is now 
a desert ; also maize will not now ripen in the basin 
of Titicaca, though it must have done so in the age 
of the megalithic builders. These and other changes 
of geographical and climatic conditions must have 
profoundly affected the populations from time to 
time, but at present data are wanting for the solution 

of these problems. 


Life in the mountain area of the west called forth 
that energy and resourcefulness in man which created 
the great Andean civilisations. The main factors in 
the development of Peruvian culture were the lama, 
the potato, and maize. Bolivia, bounded as it is on 
the west by the Andean civilisation, on the north and 
east by tropical forests, and on the south by the 
grass plains of the Gran Chaco, has played a part in 
the history of many migrations. 

In accordance with the areas distinguished above 
the natives of South America may best be dealt 
with under the three following headings : i. Civilised 
Andeans of the Cordilleras ; ii. Backward Peoples 
of the forest region ; iii. Pampeans and Fuegians of 
the south. 

i. The Andeans. Prior to the Discovery the Inca 
Empire had included under its sway Aymara and 
other Quichua-speaking peoples. The Aymara, who 
should be properly called Colla, inhabited the 
southern province. Physically there is a close re- 
semblance between them and the Quichua (2, ii.). 
The Spaniards found the Aymara occupying the area 
surrounding the site of the vast ruins of Tiahuanacu 
at the southern end of Lake Titicaca, for which some 
authorities consider them responsible (3, 284), but 
a more likely view is that of Markham (1, 47), who 
sees in the Aymara the descendants of the barbarian 
destroyers of the old megalithic culture. This 


civilisation is of great antiquity, dating in all prob- 
ability from a period before the Cordilleras had 
attained their present altitude. The great popula- 
tion of which these ruins are evidence represents a 
series of movements from the south. Similar ruins 
are found at Cuzco, Abancay, and elsewhere, indicat- 
ing the extent of the dominion of this great builder 
people, as to whose identity the Inca themselves 
were ignorant. 

Survivors of these early civilisers would seem to 
have taken refuge at Tampu-tocco beside the deep 
gorge of the Apurimac, whence their descendants 
afterwards spread to Cuzco and founded the great 
Empire of the Inca about 1100 A.D., that is, some 
four centuries before the Spanish conquest. It is 
to the Inca as the dominant Quichuan people that 
the chief interest attaches. Their realm grew from 
these small beginnings till it extended from the 
Quito district of Ecuador to the Rio Maule in Chile, 
absorbing the Aymara (or Colla) in the south, and the 
great sea-board civilised power of Grand Chimu in the 
north, only to mention the most important Inca con- 
quests (11, chap. iv). This was the position of affairs 
when the Spanish Conquistadores arrived early in 
the sixteenth century. Small movements of peoples 
under the Inca may be accounted for by their system 
of sending loyal tribes to colonise unsettled areas 
and transplanting rebellious tribes to settled districts. 


The Chimu population occupied the district near 
the modern Truxillo. They spoke a language, 
Mochica, which was quite distinct from Quichuan ; 
their descendants are the Yunca now living along 
the coast from 5 to 10 S. lat. for whom a northward 
migration seems to be indicated by place-names 
(4, 149). 

The most northerly of the great linguistic families 
of the Andes is that of the Chibcha-speaking peoples, 
Muysca, of northern Colombia. Attempts have 
been made to establish some relation between the 
Chibcha and the peoples immediately to north of 
the Isthmus, in which case a southward migration 
might be inferred. At all events when discovered, 
the Chibcha had long been settled in Colombia, to 
judge from the close connection existing between 
their religious conceptions and the localities which 
they inhabited. Although their empire was almost 
contiguous in the south with that of the Inca, their 
civilisation was quite distinct from that of the 
Quichua, and they retained their independence until 
the arrival of the Conquistadores. The Guaymi of 
Chiriqui, north of the Isthmus, are a surviving 
Chibcha people. 

ii. The Backward Peoples of the forest region. 
From the Cordilleras to the Atlantic and from the 
Rio de la Plata to the Antilles there are four great 
linguistic families : Tapuya, Tupi, Carib, and Arawak. 


1. The Tapuya are the aborigines of eastern 
Brazil, the forest-dwellers of the coast-area and of 
the interior westwards as far as the Xingu River, a 
right tributary of the Amazon. They are made up of 
two sections, a western branch, whom von Martius 
terms Ges peoples, and an eastern branch which 
includes the primitive forest tribes of the east, notably 
the Botocudo. 

The great mass of the Ges have lived east of the 
Xingu since tune immemorial (5, 156). The ancient 
skulls discovered in the caves of Lagoa Santa present 
all the characteristic features of the Tapuya skull. 
The sambaquis or shell-mounds, however, cannot 
be attributed to them, as they never appear to have 
been navigators or fisherman, but nomadic hunters. 
The name by which they are known to some of their 
Indian neighbours is Crens (" ancients "), which points 
to their early occupation of the country. Their rdle 
in history has been a passive one, and at the Spanish 
conquest their territory was practically restricted to 
the hjll country of the interior of Brazil. Some tribes 
were carried along with the great westward stream of 
migration. The Semigaes, whose name and language 
attest their origin, penetrated to the region about the 
upper tributaries of the Amazon, but they have 
become assimilated in character to their Tupi and 
Carib neighbours (6, 186). 

2. The original home of the Tupi lay about the 


northern affluents of the La Plata. They are 
essentially a water people, and in the sixteenth 
century they still lived mainly by fishing and hunt- 
ing, though most tribes practised agriculture to some 
small extent. Their migrations have always followed 
the beds of rivers or the coast. They passed down 
the La Plata and on reaching the mouth turned 
northwards up the coast, where they occupied a 
strip of coast land, from which they drove the 
tribes already in possession, calling them Tapuya 
(" strangers " or " enemies "). Their migration 
along the coast proceeded with comparative speed. 
Arrived at the mouth of the Amazon they followed 
it upwards along its southern bank, the Arawak 
occupying the north bank. On the whole, the 
Amazon forms a sharp division between the two, 
though the existence of small detached tribes of 
each race on the hostile bank proves that attempts 
were made to cross the river. Tupi traditions show 
that they continued to advance along the Amazon, 
and it is probable that the Tupi tribes of the Xingu 
and Tapajoz came down these tributaries from the 
main stream (6, 191). Von den Steinen encountered 
settlements of Kamayura and Aueto, Tupi tribes, 
about the head- waters of the Xingu (5, 168). The 
Tupi migration cannot be followed up the Amazon, 
but far to the west Tupi tribes are found which have 
advanced in civilisation considerably beyond the 


rest of their race. These are the Omagua between 
the Putumayo and the Caqueta, and the Cocama 
at the confluence of the Maranon and the Ucayali. 
The Omagua must have reached this region long 
before the Spanish conquest, for by that time they 
had learned much from the more highly civilised 
peoples. The Tupi were an aggressive people 
addicted to cannibalism ; those of the south called 
themselves Guarani (" warriors "). The southern 
Guarani about the Parana and the Uruguay were 
gathered by the Jesuits into " missions " in the 
early days of white influence ; a large proportion of 
these Mansos (" tame ") Indians have been absorbed 
by the white population. 

3. The Carib have been known north of the 
Amazon since the time of the Discovery. Von den 
Steinen has studied Carib tribes, Bakairi and 
Nahuqua, on the Kulisehu, a head-stream of the 
Xingu, and his investigations have convinced him 
that von Martius and others were mistaken in sup- 
posing that Carib and Tupi were descendants of a 
common race, though probably there was early 
intercourse between the two. He places the first 
home of the Carib about the sources of the Xingu 
and of the Paranatinga, a right tributary of the 
Tapajoz (5, chap. xiv). Like the Tupi they are to a 
great extent a fishing people, and naturally their 
migrations would follow the course of rivers. On the 


whole, it seems probable that they reached the mouth 
of the Amazon slightly before the Tupi arrived there 
by the coast route, for there is abundant evidence of 
their hostile encounters with the Arawak tribes to 
the north. The presence of the Tupi to the east 
blocked their advance in that direction and deflected 
their course northwards. Meanwhile, as we have 
seen, the Tupi moved westward along the Amazon, 
and southward up the Xingu and Tapajoz, thus 
cutting off the migrating Carib tribes from those 
remaining in their early home (6, 192). 

North of the Amazon the Carib met with but a 
feeble resistance from the Arawak, and they there- 
fore spread rapidly over the northern part of the 
South American continent ; eventually, in the 
course of centuries they prevailed from the mouth 
of the Amazon to the Lagoon of Maracaibo. An 
unmistakably Carib tribe is even encountered beyond 
the Cordilleras in the basin of the Rio Magdalena, but 
it must be regarded as an isolated group, since, 
generally speaking, the civilised Andean races 
effectually checked the further spread of the Carib 

Their last conquest, that of the Antilles, was 
arrested by the arrival of the Spaniards. On the 
large islands the population was exclusively Arawak, 
but the people lived in fear of an onslaught by the 
ferocious Carib, who had by this time learnt the use 


of sails. On the Lesser Antilles, the Discoverers 
found Carib men with Arawak wives, showing that 
the islands had been conquered in that generation. 
The Carib had been true to their general practice 
of killing off the males and sparing the women. The 
custom of eating their male foes was widespread 
among the Carib tribes, and in every respect they 
were fierce and much dreaded enemies, which 
accounts for their rapid triumph over the less 
aggressive Arawak. The southern Carib studied by 
von den Steinen were found to be comparatively 
harmless fishermen, so that it would seem that the 
savage qualities in the race were developed in the 
course of their migrations. 

4. The Arawak are a very ancient typical inland 
race, which points to the conclusion that their 
original home must have been above the area of 
periodical floods. They are to be found on the 
eastern slopes of the Cordilleras from the peninsula 
of Goajira to the borders of Chile, and are especially 
numerous in eastern Bolivia; it may therefore be 
reasonably assumed that their first home lay in 
this region. This view is also supported by their 
early cultivation of the tapioca-plant (manioc), 
which does not grow in tropical flooded areas. At 
what date they began to spread east, north-east, and 
south-east it is impossible to say. It seems probable 
that they encountered no earlier inhabitants in the 


basins of the Amazon and Orinoco, because Arawak 
peoples are uniformly spread over large areas of 
northern South America, in fact wherever they have 
not been expelled by later immigrations of Tupi and 
Carib (6, 186). They never adopted the cannibal 
habits of tribes with whom they came in contact, 
but the Orinoco tribes became navigators and fisher- 
men, eventually extending over the whole of the 
West Indies. The Arawak migration, having 
followed the Orinoco, proceeded through Guiana, 
and then some tribes turned south, crossed the 
Amazon, and thus reached the region about the source 
of the Xingu, where von den Steinen recently found 
settlements of their descendants (the Mehinaku, 
Yaulapiti, and others) ; the Paressi have penetrated 
still farther south, for there is a settlement of them 
north-west of Cuyaba (5, 159, 424). 

iii. Pampeans and Fuegians. This group of 
peoples covers the vast area south of 30 S. lat. 

There is evidence to prove that in remote ages, 
when climatic conditions were more favourable, 
the pampas and the Patagonian steppe were more 
thickly populated than at present by Neolithic races. 
Implements of palaeolithic type, discovered in the 
glacial drift of the Rio Negro and elsewhere (7, i. 374), 
and human remains prove the existence of still 
earlier inhabitants. Keane questions whether the 
rock inscriptions or carvings, remains of irrigation 


works, and stone and metal objects found on the 
Argentine slope of the Cordilleras and in the plains 
below may not possibly be ascribed to the ancestors 
of the megalithic builders of Tiahuanacu. 

As regards the original home of the Tehuel-che 
(Patagonians), it appears certain that they have 
drifted southwards. Physically they closely re- 
semble the Borroro, a primitive tribe living in Matto 
Grosso, recently studied by Ehrenreich (8, 100, 125) 
and von den Steinen (5, 441). The former describes 
their exceptional height and large round heads, in 
both of which respects they form a striking parallel 
with the tall brachycephalic Tehuel-che. If Borroro 
and Tehuel-che be branches of one stock, the home 
of their common ancestors remains to be discovered. 

Beyond the southern border of the Peruvian 
Empire, about 35 S. lat., lived the Araucans, a 
compact nation which held its own against the Inca 
and after them the Conquistadores. Their linguistic 
affinities are still obscure, but physically they recall 
the Quichua and Aymara. 

The Puel-che (" east-men "), a branch of the 
Araucans living on the eastern slope of the Andes, 
moved down the Rio Negro and came into contact 
with the Pampas Indians. There they have inter- 
mingled with Patagonians of the south and Guaycuru 
from the north, and with Europeans, giving rise to 
the hybrid Gaucho and others, who have been in- 


eluded under the term Puel-che, thus causing some 
confusion. More Araucan tribes, the Manzaniero, 
have migrated into the Argentine pampas, and these 
with the other Araucan peoples of the pampas have 
been pushed south of the Rio Negro within recent 
years, where they have absorbed some of the Pata- 
gonians and forced others southwards across the Rio 
Santa Cruz (10, 574). 

Thus we have in the first place an eastward move- 
ment of Puel-che and subsequently a recoil south, as 
the Europeans settled about the Rio de la Plata and 
spread inland. To the north in Gran Chaco, a region 
as yet little explored, various Guaycuru-speaking 
tribes (Toba, Mataco, and others) remain practically 
in a condition of savagery. The divisions of all the 
Pampean tribes have been considerably modified, if 
not destroyed, by their nomadic mode of life, which 
has been brought about by the introduction of the 

The central and western islands of Tierra del 
Fuego are inhabited by Yahgan and Alakaluf , who 
are the true aborigines ; the eastern parts are 
occupied by the Ona, probably a branch of the 
Tehuel-che, who have obviously encroached from the 
north (9, 7, 11). 

1. MABKHAM, Sra CLEMENTS R. The Incas of Peru, 1910. 

2. CHERVIN, A. Anthropologie Bolivienne (3 vols.), 1908. 

3. KBANE, A. H. The World's Peoples, 1908. 


4. BUCHWALD, 0. VON. Das Reich der Chimus, Globus, xcv., 1909. 

6. STEINEN, K. VON DEN. Unter den Naturvolkern Zentral- 

Brastiiens, 1894. 

6. HAEBLER, K. The World's History (ed. Helmolt), i., 1901, 

p. 180. 

7. KEANE, A. H. Central and South America (Stanford's Com- 

pend. Geog.), i., 1901. 
H. EHRENREICH, P. Anthrop. Studien iiber die Urbewohner 

Brasiliens, 1897. 
9, HYADBS, P., AND DENIKES, J. Mission scientifique du Cap 

Horn (1882-3), 1891. 

10. DENIKEB, J. The Races of Man, 1900. 

11. JOYCE, T. A. South American Archccology, 1912. 


Abyssinia, 55, 56, 68 
Achaeans, 41 
Adriatic, 48 
uEgean, 23 
Aeta, 33 

Afar ; see Danakil 
Afghanistan, 12 
Africa, 6, 39, 51 ff. 

British East, 62 

east, 53, 56, 61, 67, 68 

German East, 69 
South-West, 64 

north, 24, 38, 39, 43, 46, 

north-east, 66, 70 

south, 62, 67 
Agricultural peoples, migrations 

of, 2, 6, 52, 53 
wealth of, an incentive of 

attack, 2-3, 32 
Ainu, 33 
Akkad, 19 
Alakaluf, 113 
Alans, 58 

Alaska, 74, 80, 82, 83, 94 
Alemanni, 43 
Algonquians, 82, 84-92 
Alpine race, 17, 23-25, 27, 33, 

40, 41, 47-49 
Alpine zone, 13 
Alps, 43, 48 

AmaXosa, 62, 63 
Amazon, 106-109, 111 
AmaZulu, 62, 63, 67, 69 
America, 4, 9, 11, 16, 37, 73 ff. 

Central, 79, 81, 89, 97 ff. 

North, 3, 73, 80 ff . 

Atlantic coast of, 85 

Eastern States of, 3-4 

glaciation of, 75, 76 

north-west of, 73, 74, 82, 


Pacific slope of, 76, 78, 

81, 93, 94 

South, 73, 77-79, 102 ff. 

forest peoples of, 103, 
105 ff. 

American Indians, North, 83 

origins of, 73-79 

of eastern woodlands), 78 

of prairies, 79 

Amoritic migration of Semites, 

19, 22 

Anatolia, 12, 25 
Andamanese, 18, 33 
Andeans, 78, 103-105, 109 
Andes, 102-105, 109, 110, 112 
Angles, 46 
Angola, 66 
ANgoni, 67 
Antarctic, 36, 73 
Antilles, 89, 105, 109, 110 



Antimerina, 70 

Apache (Athapascan), 84, 95 

Arabia, 19-21, 53, 56, 70 

Arabs, 35, 46, 55, 56, 58, 59, 69, 

Aral, 20 n., 38 

Aral-Caspian basin, 12 

Aramaean migration of Semites, 

Araucans, 112, 113 

Arawak, 89, 105, 107, 109, 110, 

Arctic, 14, 19, 80, 81, 83 

Argentine, 112, 113 

Arizona, 82, 84, 95 

Armenians, 25 

Artifacts as evidence for migra- 
tion, 8, 9 

" Aryans,' 20, 21, 26, 27 

Ashanti, 60 

Asia, 2, 12 ff., 45, 49 

land connection with America, 

central, 2, 14, 28, 30, 38, 44 
plateau of, 12 

north, 18 

north-east, 76, 79 

south, 15, 54 

south-east, 17, 34, 78 

south-west, 20, 26 

west, 17, 21, 23, 24, 40 

plateaus of, 12, 17, 30 

Asia Minor, 23-25, 39, 41, 47, 56 
Asiatics, in Africa, 55, 58 

in Europe, 46, 48 

north, 83 

west, 16 
Assam, 3, 30, 31 
Assiniboin (Siouan), 91 
Assyrians, 19 
Athapascans, 82, 84 
Attila, 44 

Attiwandaron (Iroquoian), 92 
Attraction inducing migration, 


Aueto, 107 
Australians, 34 

Austria ; see also Pannonia, 45 
Avars, 45, 46, 48 
Aymara, 103, 104, 112 
Aztec, 97, 99, 100. 

Babylon, 20, 21, 23, 32 

Babylonians, 19 

Bactria, 20, 21, 29 

BaHima, 53, 68. 69 

Bak, 32 

Bakalri, 108 

Bakhtiari, 24 

Balkan Peninsula, 25, 39, 43, 45 

47, 48 
Balti, 16 
BaLuba, 65 
Baluchistan, 12, 26 
BALZ, G., 33 
Bantu, 52, 54, 61-70 

of Congo, 65 

of east Africa, 67, 69 

of Madagascar, 69 

of south Africa, 62-64, 70 

of west Africa, 66 
Barabra, 58 
BaRotse, 64, 65 
Barriers to migration, 5-7 
BABTHEL, K., 62, 65, 66, 71 
BaSuto, 63 

BaTlokua, 63, 64 
Bavarians, 43 
BeChuana, 63, 64 
BEDDOB, J., 48, 50 
Belgae, 42 
Bengal, 27 

Berbers, 46, 55, 56, 58, 59, 70 
Berg Damara, 64 



Bison, attraction to North 
American Indians. 87, 90 

Blackfeet (Algonquian), 84 

BOAS, FRANZ, 83, 85, 91, 96 

Boers, 4, 63 

BOGOBAS, W., 79, 95 

Bohemia, 48 

Bois, C. G. DTI, 94, 96 

Bolivia, 102, 103, 110 

Bornu, 59 

Borroro, 112 

Botocudo, 78, 106 

BOYLE, D., 91, 96 

Brachycephals, 16 

Brahui, 26 

Brazil, 77, 78, 106 

BREASTED, J. H., 20, 23, 37, 58, 

BRINTON, D. G., 74, 95 

British Isles, 42, 46 

Bronze age in, 41 

glaciation of, 38 

Neolithic man in, 40 

round barrows in, 41 
Brittany, 17 

Bronze, 41, 49, 65 


BUCHWALD, 0. VON, 105, 114 

Buddhism, 4 

Bulgars, 45 

BuNyoro, 53 

Burgundians, 44 

Burma, 31, 32 

Burmese, 31, 32 

Buryat, 18 

Bushmen, 40, 54, 57, 61-63, 70 

BuShongo, 65 

Byzantine Empire, 25 

Caddoans, 82, 89 
California, 77, 84, 94 

Indians of, 81 

Canaan, 23 

Canaanitic migration of Semites, 

19, 22, 

Canada, 75, 85 
Cape Colony, 54, 62 
Cappadocia, 23 
Carib, 105, 106, 108-111 
Carolinas, 89 
Ceylon, 18 

Chaco, Gran, 102, 103, 113 
Chad, Lake, 69, 65 
CHADWICK, H. M., vi., 42, 50, 58, 


Chaka, 63 

CHAMBERLAIN, A. F., 94, 96 
Cherokee (Iroquoian), 87, 90, 


CHERVIN, A., 103, 113 
Cheyenne (Algonquian), 87, 88 
Chibcha, 105 

Chickasaw (Muskhogean). 89 
Chile, 77, 104, 110 
Chimu, Grand, 103, 104 
China, 12, 13 

great wall of, 7, 28, 32 

north-west, 28 

south, 17, 33, 35 

south-west, 31 

west, 28 
Chinese, 16, 32, 36 
Chingpo, 31 
Chinook, 93 
Christianity, 4 
Chudes, 16 
Chukchi, 18 
Chutia Nagrpur, 27 
Cimbri, 42" 
Cimmerians, 24, 41 
Colla ; see Avmara 
Colombia, 105 
Colorado, 84, 88 
Columbia, British, 93, 98 


Congo, 51, 52, 65, 66, 70 

Conquistadores ; see Spaniards in 

Constantinople, 45, 47 

Cossaei, 20 

Cree (Algonquian), 86-88, 91 

Creeks (Muskhogean), 89 

Cretan civilisation, 23 

CBOOKB, W., 27, 37 

Cuba, 89 

" Cultural drift," 9, 10 

Culture, as evidence for migra- 
tion, 5, 8, 10 

Cuzco, 104 

Cyprus, 23 

Dakota (Siouan), 86, 90, 91, 92 
Danakil, 68 

Danube, 19, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46 
Delaware (Algonquian), 87 
Den6 ; see Athapascans 
DENIKEB, J., 76, 95, 113, 114 
Denmark, 40, 42, 46 
Desiccation, of Asia, 2, 14 

of Europe, 14 
Dieguenos, 94 
Dolichocephals, 16 
Dravidians, 17, 26 

Pre-, 17, 26, 34 
Dutch (Cape), 62 

East Indian Archipelago, 33-35, 


Easter Island, 37 
Ecuador, 77, 104 
Egypt, 4, 22, 24, 55, 56-58 
Egyptians, 7, 24 

archaic, 55-57 

dynastic, 67 
EHBINREICH, P., 112, 114 

Elam, 20, 21, 32 
Elamites, 21 
Elbe, 45, 48 
ELIJS, A. B., 60, 72 
English in North America, 93 
Ephthalites ; see, White Huns 
Eskimo, 78, 82, 83 
Etruscans, 41, 42 
Euphrates, 13, 19, 21, 22, 47 
Eur-Asia, 14, 26 
Europe, 4, 12, 14, 18, 22, 38 ff., 
54, 75 

antiquity of man in, 15, 39 

climatic changes in, 2, 38, 39 

land connection with America, 

central, 6, 44 

east, 23 

north, 16, 42, 47, 49 

north-central, 40 

south, 24, 39, 40, 56 

west, 40, 73 

Europeans in Africa, 62, 67, 70 

in East Indian Archipelago, 35 

in South America, 112, 113 
Ewe- speaking people, 60 
Expulsion inducing migration, 

1 2 

Falasha, 56 
Fan, 66 
Fanti, 60 

FABBAND, L., 76, 82, 95 
Farsi, 26 

FEIST, S., 11, 49, 50 
FEWKES, J. W., 95, 96 
Finno-Ugrians, 18 
Finns, 19, 48 

Folk-tales as evidence for 
migration, 8, 10 

FOBSTEMANN, E., 100, 101 

Foxes (Algonquian), 86 



France, 41, 46, 49 

central, 40 

east, 44 

south, 42, 44 
Franks, 44, 45 

French in North America, 86, 93 
FEITSCH, G., 35, 37 
Fuegians, 103, 111, 113 
Fuego, Tierra del, 77, 113 
Fulani, 69, 60 

GADOW, H., 97-99, 101 
Galla, 68, 69 
Gambia, 51, 59 
Ganges, 13, 27, 30, 34 
Gaucho, 112 
Gaul, 6, 42-44 
Gepidae, 45 
Germans, 6 

in Africa, 68 

east, 4 

north, 38 

north-east, 48 

west, 40, 42, 43 
Ges, 106 

Gimirrai; see Cimmerians 
Glacial age, 14, 15, 38, 55, 73- 

75, 78, 82, 84 
Goths, 43 
Greece, 3, 23 
Greeks, 21, 58 

Asiatic, 28 
Greenland, 73, 82, 83 
GRIGNARD, F. A., 27, 37 
Grimaldi, 40 
GRIKNELL, G. B., 88, 96 
Guarani, 108 
Guatemala, 97, 99, 100 
Guaycuru, 112, 113 
Guaymi, 105 

Guiana, 111 
Guinea, New, 33 

HADDON, A. C., 34, 37, 61, 62, 

HAEBLER, K., 75, 90, 95, 100, 
101, 106, 107, 109, 111, 114 

HALE, HORATIO, 88, 96 

Hamites, 54, 55, 58, 59, 61, 68, 

Proto-, 54, 60, 62 
Hammurabi, 20 
Hausa, 69, 60 
Hawaii, 36 
Hebrews, 4, 23 
Himalayas, 12 
Himyarites, 55 
Hittites, 20, 23-25 
Hiung-nu, 28, 29 
Ho, 26 

Hoa ; see Huna 
HOGARTH, D. G., 25, 37 
HOLMES, T. RICE, 41, 49 
Hopi (Pueblo), 94 
Horse in America, 9, 90, 91 

in south-west Asia, 20 
Hottentots, 54, 55, 61-63, 70 
" Hova," 70 

Huasteka, 97 

Hudson Bay, 83, 84, 86, 91 

Huna, 29, 30 

Hunagars, 45 

Hungary, 45-47 

Huns, 44-46 

White, 30 

Hunting peoples, causes of 

migration of, 1 
HmmNGTON, E., 14, 15, 37 
Hupa (Athapascan), 84, 95 
Huron (Iroquoian), 87, 92 
HYADES, P., 113, 114 
Hyksos, 22 


Dlyria, 48 
Inca, 103-105, 112 
India, 12, 13, 17, 26-30, 35, 36, 
56, 70 

north, 27, 28 

north-west, 29 

south, 13, 26, 39 

west, 27, 28 
Indies, West, 111 
Indo-Chinese, 30, 31 
Indonesia, 17 
Indonesians, 31, 34, 35 
Indus, 13, 30 

Innuit ; see Eskimo 

Iran, 12, 20, 25 

Iron working, 49 

Iroquoians, 82, 85-87, 89, 91-93 

Islam, 4, 24, 35, 55 

Italy, 38, 39, 41-45, 49 

Jagga, 66 

Japanese, 33 

Java, 35, 36 

JENKS, A. E., 86, 90, 96 

Jews, 65 

JOHNSTON, SIB H., 69, 72 

Jolof, 59 

JONES, F. WOOD, 57, 71 

JOYCE, T.A., 65, 69, 72, 104, 114 

Julius Caesar, 43 

Jumna, 27 

Jutes, 46 

Kaffirs, 67 

Kamayura, 107 

Karen, 32 

Kassites, 20-22 

KATE, H. TEN, 77, 96 

Kattea, 61 

KEANE, A. H., 16, 19, 24, 37, 46, 
60, 55, 58, 71, 76, 78, 95, 100, 
101, 103, 111, 113, 114 

Kelts, 41-43, 46, 49 
KENNEDY, J., 20, 21 
Khabiri, 23 
Khamti, 31 
Khmer, 31 
Korea, 33 
Kotan, 21 
Kpwesi, 60 
KROEBER, A. L., 96 
KROPOTKIN, P., 14, 37 
Kru, 60 

Kublai Khan, 32 
Kurds, 21, 24, 25 
Kurgan- builders, 16 
Kushan, 29 
Kutenai, 93 

Lagoa Santa race, 77, 78, 106 

Langobardi, 45 

Language as evidence for mi- 
gration, 6, 8, 10. 11, 48, 76, 
91, 93 

LEFfcvuE, A., 47, 50 

Lenni-Lenape (Algonquian), 87 

Liberia, 60 

Libyans, 24, 65, 67, 68, 70 

Lombardy, 38 

Lori, 26 

Lunda Kingdom, 65, 66 

LUSCHAN, F. VON, 25, 37 

Madagascar, 69 
MaFiti, 68, 69 
Magyars, 46, 48 
MaKalanga, 63, 64, 67 
Malays, 34 
Proto-, 34, 35 
Manchu, 32 
Mandas, 24 
Mandingo, 59, 60 
Mansos Indians, 108 
MaNtati, 64 
Man-tse, 17 



Manzaniero, 113 


102, 103, 113 
Marquesas, 36 

MARTIUS, C. F. P. VON, 106, 108 
Masai, 67-70 
MaShona, 63, 64 
MaSimba, 66, 67 
MaSitu, 67, 68 
MaTabili, 63, 64 
Mataco, 113 
Mattienoi, 21 
Matto Grosso, 112 
Maya, 97-100 
Medes, 24, 26 
Mediterranean, 22, 38, 39, 46, 


eastern, 24 
Mediterranean race, 16, 24, 26, 

40, 46, 55, 56, 58 
Melanesians, 33, 36, 69 
Mesopotamia, 12, 13, 21, 22 
Mexicano, 78, 97, 100 
Mexico, 81, 82, 89, 97 ff. 

New, 82, 84 

Gulf of, 89, 97 
MEYER, E., 19, 20 n., 37 
Micmacs (Algonquian), 85 
Minnesota, 86, 87, 90 
Mississippi, 81, 85-87, 89-91 
Misteca, 98 

Mitani, 21-23 

Mochica, 105 

Mohave, 94 

Mon, 31, 32 

Mongoloid, 17, 27, 32, 34, 76 

Mongols, 12, 17, 18, 29, 31, 76 

Montana, 85, 87, 88, 93 

MONTEFIORE, A., 19, 37 

Mound-builders (North America), 

87, 92 
Mousterian man, 39 

Muhammadans, 30, 60 
Munda-speaklng peoples, 26 
Musk-ox, attraction to Eskimo, 


Muskhogeans, 82, 89 
Muysca, 105 

Nahoa, 98-100 
Nahuqua, 108 

Navaho (Athapascan), 84, 95 
Neanderthal man, 39 
Negrillos, 64, 61, 62 
Negritos, 33 
Negro, Rio, 111-113 
Negroes, 54, 67, 61, 68, 69, 71 

Nilotic, 61, 68 

West African, 53 

Negroid Stock, 18, 26, 40, 64, 

62, 69 

Neo-ethnic period in America, 77 
Neolithic man in Africa, 58 

in America, 111 

in Asia, 16, 48, 74 

in Europe, 40, 49, 55 
NIEBUHB, C., 54, 71 
Niger, 59, 60 

Nile, 51, 54, 58, 61, 70 
Nile Delta, 24, 56, 58 
Nootka, 98 

Nordics (Northern Race), 16, 
39-41, 49 

Proto- 17, 26 
Norway, 40, 73 
Nuba, 58 
Nubians, 57, 58 

Oceania, 33 ff., 74 
OETTEKING, B., 57, 71 
Ojibwa, or Chippewa (Algon- 
quian), 85-87, 90, 92 
Omagua (Tupi), 108 
Ona, 113 


Oromo ; see Galla 
Osmanli, 18, 25, 47, 48 
Ostrogoths, 44, 45 
Otomi, 98, 99 
Ottoman; see Osmanli 
OvaHerero, 64 
OvaMpo, 64 
Oxus, 25, 29, 30 

Pacific, west, 35 
Pahlava, 28 
Palaeolithic man, 2 

in Africa, 54, 55 

in America, 111 

in Asia, 15 

in Europe, 15, 39, 40, 55, 78 
Palestine, 23 

Pampeans, 103, 111-113 

Panama, Isthmus of, 94, 97, 105 

Panjab, 21, 27 

Pannonia, 46, 48 

Papuans, 33 

Paressi (Arawak), 111 

Parthians, 28 

Pastoral peoples, migrations of, 

1, 6, 52, 53, 69 

Patagonia, 77, 78, 102, 111-113 
Patagonians, 112, 113 
Pawnee (Caddoan), 89 
PAYNE, E. J., 75, 76, 95, 98, 101 
Persia, 12, 25, 28 
Persians, 26, 56 
Peru, 103-105 
PBTRIE, W. N. FLINDERS, 11, 44, 


Philippines, 33 
Philistines, 23 
Phoanicians, 22, 58 
Phrygians, 23 
Physical characters as evidence 

for migration, 5, 8 

Plains Indians, 9, 78, 88-90 
Plata, Rio de la, 105, 107, 113 
Pliocene, 15 
Polynesians, 36, 37, 74 

Proto-, 35 
Portuguese hi Africa, 66, 67 

in East Indian Archipelago, 35 
PBEVILLB, A. DE, 51, 71 
Pueblo Indians, 82, 94-95 
Puel-che, 112, 113 

Pygmies, of Africa, 54 

of Asia, 33 

of Europe, 40 

of Oceania, 33 

Quichua, 103, 105, 112 
QUIGGIN, E. C., vi. 

" Racial drift," 9, 10 

Raj pu tana, 27 

Raratonga, 36 

Red Sea, 21, 54, 68, 70 

Reindeer in North America, 73, 


Rhine, 41-44 
Rice, wild, attraction to North 

American Indians, 86 
RIDGEWAY, W., 41, 49 
RINK, H., 83, 95 
RIPLEY, W. Z., 19, 26, 37, 48, 50 
RISLBY, H. H., 27, 37 
RIVET, P., 78, 95 
Rocky Mountains, 75, 78, 80, 

84, 88, 98 
Romans, 6, 43, 44 
ROSCOE, J., 53, 71 
Roumans, 48 
Round-barrow men, 41 
Russia, 45 

north, 38 

south, 45 

kurgan-builders of, 16 



Sacae, 16 

Sahara, 58, 71 

St Lawrence, 85, 86. 91 

Saka, 28, 29 

Sakai, 18, 34 

Salish, 93 

Salt an Incentive to migration, 


Samoa, 36 
Samoyad, 19 
Sargon, 19, 24 
Saxons, 44, 46 
Scandinavia, 38, 46 
SOHAKFF, R. F., 73, 95 
SCHTJBTZ, H., 18, 33, 37, 61, 69, 


Scythians, 16, 24, 27, 41 
Se (Sek), 28 
Seljuk Turks, 25, 47 
Semang, 18, 33 
Semites, 19-22, 24, 26, 55, 58, 


Senegambia, 59 
SERGI. G., 55, 71 
Gliahaptians, 84 
Shan, 30-32 
Shawnee, 85 
Shoshoneans, 82, 84, 98 
Siberia, 12-14, 74 

south, kurgan - builders of, 

south-west, 13 
Siksika; see Blackfeet 
Siouans, 82, 87, 89-92 
Slave trade, 53, 56 
Slavs, 4, 45, 47-48 

SMITH, G. ELLIOT, 55-57, 71 
SMITH, S. PERCY, 36, 37 
SMITH, VINCENT A., 28-30, 37 
Snakes ; see Shoshonean 
Somal, 68 
Somaliland, 54 

Spain, 42, 43, 44, 46, 58 
Spaniards, in America, 95, 99, 

100, 103, 109, 112 
Steatopygy, 40 
STEENSBY, H. P., 83, 96 
STEINEN, K. VON DEN, 106-108, 

110-112, 114 
STOW, G. W., 62, 71 
STUHLMANN, F. VON, 54, 55, 71 
Sudan, 59, 71 
Sumatra, 34 
Sumerians, 19 
Susiana, 25 
Switzerland, 40 
Syria, 7, 21-23, 46, 56 
SZINNYBI, J., 18, 19, 37 

Tahiti, 36 

Tai ; see Shaw 

Tajik, 25 

Tallegewi (Cherokee), 87 

Tapuya, 105-107 

Tapajoz, 107-109 

Tarasco, 98, 99 

Tasmanians, 33 

Tehuel-che, 112, 113 

Teutonic peoples, 42-47 

THEAL, G. M'C., 64, 71 

THOMAS, CYRUS, 85, 91, 96 

Tiahuanacu, megalithic builders 

of, 102, 104, 112 
Tibet, 29 

Tibeto-Burmans, 30, 31 
Tigris, 13, 20 
Titicaca, Lake, 102, 103 
Toba, 113 
Toltec, 99, 100 
TORDAY, E., 65, 66, 71, 72 
Transvaal, 61, 63 
Tshi-speaking people, 60 
Tsimshian, 98 
Tsin dynasty, 32 


Tuareg, 59 

Tungus, 18 

Tupi, 105, 106-109, 111 

Turki, 17-19, 21, 25, 26, 28-30, 


Turkestan, Chinese, 16, 32 
Turkomans, 25, 28 
Turks, 46-48 

Uganda, 53, 62, 69 

Ugrians, 17, 19 

UJI-ALVY, C. DB, 7, 11, 17, 37 

Umbrians, 41 

United States, 80, 85 

Ural Mountains, 12, 45 

Ural-Altaic stock, 19, 20 

Uruguay, 108 

Usuns (Wu-Suns), 16, 28, 29 

VAMB^RY, A., 45, 50 

Vandals, 43, 58 

Varangians, 47 

Veddas, 18 

Venedi, 47 

Vera Cruz, 97, 99 

Victoria Nyanza, 67, 69 

Vikings in Nova Scotia, 85 

Visigoths, 43, 44 

Volcae, 42 

Volga, 19, 30, 45, 48 

WaHehe, 68 

Washington, 84 

WaTusi, 69 

WaTuta, 67 

Welsh, 42 

WINCHBLL, N. H., 82, 84, 87, 89, 


WINCKLER, H., 19, 20-22, 24, 37 
Winnebago (Siouan), 90, 91 
Wisconsin, 86, 87, 90 
Wu-suns ; see Usuns 

Xingu, 106-109, 111 

Yahgan, 113 
Yakut, 18 
Yavana, 28 
Ye-the ; see Huna 
Yoruba, 60 
Yucatan, 97, 99 
Yueh-chi, 28, 29 
Yunca, 105 

Zambezi, 51, 54, 61-65, 67 

Zapoteca, 98 
Zealand, New, 36 
Zulu ; see AmaZulu 
Zufii (Pueblo), 94 


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The wanderings of